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74. Irrigation. Problems connected with irrigation works hydraulics and soils are studied at the central research station at Poona and at 12 other research centres under State Governments. With increase in the programme of water resources development, the activities of these stations are likely to expand further. A new research station is also proposed to be established by the Government of Assam. During the second plan it is proposed that these research stations should give attention to fundamental problems along with problems of applied engineering The Central Board of Irrigation and Power has drawn up a scheme of research on basic problems such as cavitation in hydraulic structures, engineering properties of soils, use of puzzolonic materials with cement, air enirainment in concrete, subsoil flow in tubewell areas etc. The programmes will be carried out at .various research stations and coordinated with the help of the board. Irrigation and agricultural research stations will have to collaborate in the study of certain problems such as the system of irrigation in relation to the soil type, interaction between soil fertility and efficient utilisation of irrigation water, critical periods of growth and quality of produce and relative merits of various systems of irrigation.
75. Power.In view of the extensive power development envisaged in the second and subsequent plans effective research on problems relating to power generation, transmission and distribution has become urgent. The scope of the electrical equipment manufacturing industry in the country is also expected to increase rapidly and there is considerable need for research in this direction. The lines on which research should proceed are now being examined by a technical committee appointed by the Government of India. The following are a few illustrations of problems on which research could be undertaken usefully in the near future.
Provision has been made in the second five yeai plan for the establishment of a power engineering research laboratory during the second plan period. The project also includes a suitable switchgear testing station for very high voltages.
76. Other programmes.'Besides investigations, surveys and research the programmes of the Ministry of Irrigation and Power will include (i) the setting up of an Engineering Museum at Delhi for displaying models of various projects for general information, (ii) establishment of centres for training operators and mechanics for heavy earth-moving equipments and (iii) training in the new technique of "hot line work" for maintenance of electric transmission and distribution lines and other equipments oa which there is no experience so far. A provision ofRs. 9 crores has been made for investigations, surveys and research on irrigation and power in the second plan in addition to Rs. 5.9 crores distributed in the various State plans.
77. Integrated development.Tor achievement of optimum benefits, development schemes of different states have to be closely coordinated. Water stored in reservoirs in one state may be used with advantage for irrigation in adjoining states. Similarly, power available in one state may be distributed in other states. In certain cases, it maybe useful to divert waters from one basin to another for the benefit oLthe region as a whole. Co-operation between States is. therefore, essential for investigations, allocation of waters and sharing of costs. Differences however, often arise between States in regard to the sharing of costs and benefits of such schemes. In order to resolve such difficulties, the Government of India have introduced two bills in Parliament, namely. River Boards Bill, 1955 and the Inter-State Water Disputes Bill. 1955. The first bill would enable the Government of India to constitute boards for different inter-state rivers or river valleys in consultation with the States concerned. These boards will be entrusted with the work of the preparation of schemes, allocation of costs and benefits and coordination of the activities of the State organisations etc. The second bill provides for the constitution of tribunals with the necessary authority for the adjudication of disputes between two or more States in respect of river valley projects and their benefits.
78. Obtaining of maximum benefits from projects. The phasing of irrigation and power projects and their execution should be carefully arranged to yield maximum returns from investment at each stage. Invariably it is possible through better organisation and planning to obtain larger benefits from expenditure incurred.
79. This aspect has not always received sufficient attention in carrying out projects in the first five year plan. There have been instances where reservoirs were completed before the associated canal systems, land had not been prepared for irrigation when canal systems, were completed, sub-station equipments and transmission lines were not erected when consumers were ready to take power and generating stations commenced operation, tube wells were drilled without arrangements in advance for power supply and so on. These defects in planning and execution lock up capital and obviously involve waste of resources. Every effort should be made to e'nsure that these do not occur in the second plan.
80. To obtain maximum results, benefits should" accrue at each stage and there should be no time lag between the availability of benefits and their utilization. All inter-related activities should, therefore, be carefully coordinated. Before starting work on a project detailed investigations should be made and the scope of the works to be included in the programme clearly determined. Project reports, estimates and financial forecasts should be complete and changes in them should be necessary only for special reasons. Increases in estimates in a number of major projects in recent years have evoked adverse comment. Arrangements for financing should be settled in advance and the requirements of staff should be carefully worked out for different stages of each project and steps taken for their placement at the appropriate time.
81. The phasing of projects calls for attention from another important point of view. It is of the utmost importance that irrigation from reservoirs should be fully utilised as soon as water is stored in them. This means, firstly, that the canal system should be completed, including field channels, at the same time as the reservoir and secondly that the agriculturists should have their lands ready for wet cultivation when the water becomes available. The same considerations apply to power projects. The first is largely a matter of planning the works and the order in which they should be carried out As regards the second, steps should be taken to prepare the people for using water and electricity and they should be guided and assisted in their scientific use so that the maximum increase in production can be realised. Demonstration farms should be started at selected localities and the lands which will benefit made fit fo^ irrigation by the time water becomes available. In this the national extension movement has an important role to play and should be utilised from the start for ensuring that all the preparatory steps are taken by the agriculturists in the area to utilise irrigation when it is available and in power projects, to build up the demand for power and also the arrangements for its use as soon as it is supplied.
82. Public Co-operation.for the successful completion of projects, a large measure of public cooperation is of fundamental importance. The average citizen is able to see vividly and to contribute actively to work that lies near him, or touches his life and well-being intimately. Irrigation and flood control programmes thus provide a good opportunity for seeking the cooperation of the people and in this vital field of national development there is vast scope for voluntary effort The State Government's attention was invited to this important point in the first plan, and it was recommended that works on which unskilled labour is almost entirely employed, like the canal systems, should, as a rule, be done by the villagers themselves and not through contractors and that in each village or group of villages the villagers should be organised into cooperatives taking up the work in their own area.
Apart from saving in cost the system has the following advantages:
The progress on this has however been extremely limited. Only a beginning was made by the formation of labour cooperatives on the Gangapur, Ghata-prabha, Mahi and Kakrapar projects in Bombay. Some response from the public also came forth in connection with the raising of the village sites in eastern Uttar Pradesh and on the protection works at Dib-rugarh in Assam. Except on the Kosi Project where very satisfactory progress is reported to have been made with the assistance of the Bharat Sevak Samaj, the results have on the whole been poor. Nevertheless, these instances of peoples' participation reveal the great possibilities of this method.
83. The scope fof this is even greater in the second plan as there are large numbers of medium projects spread all over the country and it is expected that such participation will be organised from the very commencement of the works. A sum of Rs. 1 crore has been provided for enlisting the desired public cooperation on the various projects in the second plan.
84. Betterment Levy.The most important and difficult issue connected with the second five year plan is the raising of capital resources. Every effort has. therefore, to be made to add to them and an equitable way is to levy betterment contribution on areas benefited by irrigation projects. About 6.3 million acres of land will have received canal irrigation from major and medium projects in the first plan and 12 million acres are expected to be irrigated in the second plan. Betterment levy on all these areas will evidently make a useful contribution to capital resources.
85. The principle of betterment levy has been confirmed more than once by the National Development Council and is now the accepted policy of the country. Legislation has already been passed in Assam, Andhra, Bombay, Madras, Punjab, Hyderabad, Mysore, Pepsu, Rajasthan, Himachal Pradesh and Orissa and Bills have been prepared in Madhya Pradesh, Madhya Bharat, Travancore-Cochin, Bihar, West Bengal and Saurashtra Although a number of projects have started irrigation in different States, for example, the Bhakra Nangal, the Kakrapar, the Mayurakshi etc. realisations have not commenced in any State. Legislation should, therefore, be passed immediately in States where this has not been done, and necessary steps taken to commence realisations as soon as possible.
86. Lands irrigated by tubewells also derive secure irrigation. More than 2 million acres are expected to be irrigated by tube wells in the second plan. It is equitable that beneficiaries from tube wells and such other minor irrigation works which provide secure irrigation are also included in the scope of legislation and required to pay betterment contribution.
87. Betterment levy should be related to increse in value of land, and being a capital levy should either be paid in lump sum or instalments spreading over a period not exceeding 15 years. The state should also have power to recover it in the shape of land. This provision will be useful for acquiring land for community purposes, consolidation of holdings, and settlement of displaced persons and landless labourers.
88. Rates for Water and PowerThe project costs are now considerably more than in the past Similarly, the cost of maintenance is higher than before. Production increases considerably as a result of irrigation and a portion of the increased produce must be returned to meet the cost of maintenance. Existing water rates were, in many cases, determined years ago. There has since been considerable increase in the value of crops produced. Increases in water rates are therefore, clearly justified and it is necessary that the possibility is explored by State Governments urgently. The water rates were revised in Travancore-Cochin, Madhya Bharat, Rajashan, Andhra, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh and Bihar and the question is under consideration in Orissa, Assam, Madras and Mysore. Similar review of power rates on a rational basis may also be made in respect of power projects so that the electric supply undertakings work on a self sufficient basis. The subject needs further attention and early steps should be taken in all States, particularly where no action has been taken so far.
89. Selection of Projects.In October, 1953, a Technical Advisory Committee was constituted by the Planning Commission to examine the projects proposed by the State Governments and to advise the Planning Commission on the technical and financial soundness of the various proposals. The number of projects which have been tentatively included in the second
plan and those for which project reports have been received are given below:
The Committee has drawn pointed attention to the satisfactory position regarding the investigation and finalisation of the projects. In the case of a number of schemes, for which project reports were received and sxamined by the Committee, it was found that the investigations were not complete and the reports lacked details essential for technical and financial scrutiny. However, a number of such projects have been provisionally included in the plan for regional and other considerations, in anticipation of further investigation and detailed revision of the scope and estimate of the projects. The project reports for the schemes provisionally included will be examined by a committee comprising of the representatives of the Planning Commission, Ministries of Irrigation and Power and Finance and specialists in the field who maybe associated with the work of the committee from time-to time.
90. Key materials.Based on preliminary estimates, the essential key materials required for the irrigation, power and flood control programmes in the second plan are listed below:
91. For being able to obtain these materials according to schedule, it is essential for every project authority and State government to carefully assess and communicate their requirements to the coordinating authority sufficiently in advance. The Central Water and Power Commission with their constant touch with the progress, will periodically assess the needs of the various projects and make suitable recommendations in this regard.
92. In view of the acute shortage of these key materials the urgency and importance of measures to economise their use need hardly be stressed. All avoidable use should be scrupulously cut down by proper design and construction methods. For example, the use of(i) reinforced concrete in place of steel struc-turals, (ii) masonry in preference to reinforced concrete, (iii) lime mortar in the place of cement and such other methods should receive greater attention. Indigenous materials like timber etc., should be put to greater use wherever possible for reducing the demand for steel and cement which will have to be imported from other countries in increasing measure in the second plan.
93. Heavy electrical equipment.For the plant and machinery required for power projects, the country is largely dependent on imports. Only a few items of light electrical equipment such as transformers, small motors, conductors, wires, lamps etc. are being manufactured in the country. Even here the full needs are not being met. The annual imports of electrical equipment during the last 2 years is of the order ofRs. 30 crores, of which heavy electrical equipment alone was of the order of Rs. 20 crores per year. During the second and the third plans the requirements of electrical equipment would increase substantially. It has, therefore, become a matter of urgency to create manufacturing capacity in the country, Accordingly, it has been decided to establish a factory for manufacturing deavy electrical equipment such as hydraulic turbines, alternators, motors transformers, switchgear etc. Preliminary work on this project is now in progress. It is expected that the factory will go into production in 1961 and meet a part of the country's requirements thereafter.
94. Foreign Exchange.The programme for Irrigation and Power envisaged in the second plan would need about Rs. 150 crores of foreign exchange for power projects and Rs. 20 crores for irrigation projects during the next 5 years. In view of the compell ing need to reduce the demand on the foreign exchange, every effort should be made by the project authorities to eliminate avoidable indents on imported machinery.
95. Personnel and EmploymentTechnical personnel is a primary need for the implementation of the construction programme in the second plan which is about 50% higher than in the first plan. The need for adequately trained personnel at all levels was keenly felt even in the first plan. To assess the availability and requirements of the personnel in future years, and to recommend proper arrangements for training the required number, a River Valley Projects Technical Personnel Committee was constituted by the Ministry of Irrigation and Power in 1954. This Committee observed that the position in respect of technical personnel will become acute in the early periods of the second plan. As the scope of examination of this Committee was limited to the requirements of river valley projects only, the Planning Commission, on further consideration, appointed a more comprehensive 'Engineering Personnel Committee' to assess the position in respect of the engineering personnel required in all fields of developmental activity including Industries, Railways, Highways etc. This Committee has assessed, that for Irrigation and Power Projects the additional requirements of engineers and supervisors will be as follows:
Adequate steps have to be taken by Government for training of engineering personnel for the plan. Programmes for specialised training for fresh engineers, refresher courses for serving engineers and training of operators and mechanics at project sites have been started on a limited scale. To supplement this programme it would be useful for the irrigation and power departments to introduce systematic internal training programmes of a specialised nature for the various types of technicians.
96. The average number of persons likely to be employed continuously over the next 5 years, on the contruction works of Irrigation and Power projects is roughly estimated to be as follows:
The works programmed during the second plan when completed, will provide permanent employment for 50,000 (35,000 for power and 15,000 for irrigation) additional men at all levels. These figures exclude the indirect employment that will be created as a result of the power and irrigation works.
97. The use of construction machinery on river valley projects should be viewed against the background of the huge man power available in the country and the urgent need for providing gainful employment for them. Indiscriminate and extensive use of machinery imposes additional strain on the country's foreign exchange position. It is hoped that State Governments and project authorities will, devote greatest attention to this matter and, consistent with economy and speed in realisation of benefits, limit mechanised construction technique to the minimum.
98. Organization. Execution of irrigation and electricity projects is primarily the responsibility of State Governments. In several States, particularly those in which development projects have been under execution during the last few decades, a degree of technical and administrative efficiency has been built up. In others, the existing organisations will need strengthening before they can undertake large programmes successfully. The C.W. and P.C. has been rendering technical assistance to States where required. For the successful implementation of the irrigation and power programme the State organisations and the Central Water and Power Commission should continue to work in close cooperation.
99. The question as to what should be the most suitable type of organisation through which the river valley projects should be administered and executed is of considerable importance. The usual agency of the Irrigation and Power departments of the States, has not been found to be sufficiently flexible in many cases. As the aim is to achieve economy with speed, the administering organisations should have adequate powers to take quick decisions. Expenditure on major projects is now largely met by financial assistance from the Centre. The Central Government is, therefore, directly interested in the efficient and economical execution of these projects. It was, therefore, recognised that a high power board consisting of representatives of the Centre and the concerned State Governments would be the proper kind of set-up for laying down policy and exercising general supervision over the execution of the project. During the last few years, a number of Control Boards have been formed for large river valley projects viz., Bhakra-Nangal, Hirakud, Rihand, Cham-bal, Koyna, Kosi, Nagarjunasagar and Tunga-bhadra. The only case where a statutory agency has been constituted for an interstate development project is the Damodar Valley Corporation. The experiencfc gained so far seems to indicate that the control board is the most suitable type of organisation for the execution of large river valley projects.
100. Most of the State Governments are managing their electricity undertakings through their public works departments. In conformity with the Electricity Supply Act, the States of Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Bombay, Delhi and Saurashtra have already constituted the State Electricity Boards. It is expected that some of the other States would also be forming Boards in the near future. These organisations with the semi-autonomous power vested in them would be suitable for the construction and operation of power schemes, except for major projects, where the construction work may be entrusted to a special agency as the one referred to in the above paragraph.
101. In view of the large programmes of irrigation and power development required all over the country and the urgency of special attention for backward regions, the Central and State Governments should work in close cooperation in the execution and development of important irrigation and power projects. It is, therefore, essential that engineers should be recruited and trained on a common basis and that they should have uniform standards of efficiency and the feeling of belonging to common and important cadres. For all this, an efficient and well organised service of engineers is urgently needed. This service would also yield a pool of engineers from which men with particular lines of experience can be made available to new schemes whenever required. The State Re-organisation Commission have also recommended the need for the constitution of an all-India service of engineers. The Planning Commission recommend that the States should cooperate with the Central Government in establishing such an organisation as early as possible.
ANNEXURE STATEMENT I
figures given Statewise are provisional and those for Manipur still need
verification CulturableArea.= Classified area(Forest+ NANot
available, (a) Figures less than 500 acres. Not avail able for cultivation)
+ Includes outlay on power portion. * Figures are yet to be finally accepted.
Includes outlay on power portion.
of outlay and benefitsIrrigation Projects
V Principal Power Generation Schemes in Second Flan
The total cost shown includes outlay on irrigation portion. tFigures are yet to be finally accepted.
Financial provision in second plan under consideration.
(ii) Private Sector
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