|2nd Five Year Plan||
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Although large numbers of persons live on the margin, the description "backward classes" is commonly applied to the following four sections of the population:
In the first five year plan programmes were undertaken for meeting the special needs of these four sections of the population. Of the total provision in the plan of about Rs. 39 crores, Rs. 20 crores were allocated in the plans of States and the balance was provided at the Centre. About Rs. 25 crores were earmarked for the development of scheduled tribes and scheduled areas, Rs. 7 crores for scheduled castes, Rs. 3.5 crores for former criminal tribes and Rs. 3.5 crores for other backward classes.
2. Each group has special problems. These are reviewed below with reference to programmes undertaken during the first five year plan and those proposed for the second plan. The second plan allocates a total amount of about Rs. 91 crores for the welfare of backward classes, of which Rs. 47 crores are for scheduled tribes and scheduled areas, Rs. 27.5 crores for scheduled castes, about Rs. 4 crores for former criminal tribes, Rs. 9.7 crores for other backward classes and Rs. 2.9 crores for administration etc. These amounts are intended for programmes which are- specially designed to assist backward classes. They are therefore supple mentary to measures of development in each State which are pursued in the interests of the population as a whole. To the extent the economy develops, backward classes also benefit. In the administration of development programmes care has to be taken to ensure that schemes are so for mulated that the weaker sections of the population are aided in the largest possible measure. While this is an aspect to be followed as closely as possible, only in some fields of development is it possible to show separately what proportion of the outlay is incurred for the direct benefit of disadvantaged sections. The special provisions made in favour of backward classes should be so utilised as to enable them to derive the maximum advantage from general development programmes and to make up as speedily as possible for retarded progress in the past Departments concerned with the welfare of backward classes in States should make special efforts to get all the other development Departments to consider ways by which their programmes can produce marked impact on the welfare of backward classes. They should utilise the resources available to them so that the general and special programmes -operated in a manner complementary to one another. For each section of the backward classes priorities should be carefully worked out It is also necessary to emphasise that the benefits which backward classes may realise will be in direct proportion to the effectiveness of implementation and to the integrity, efficiency and the attitudes of staff working in the field.
Tribal Welfare Programmes
3. Welfare programmes for tribal people have to be based on respect and understanding of their culture and traditions and an appreciation of the social, psychological and economic problems with which they are faced. The welfare and development programmes in tribal areas inevitably involve a measure of disturbance in relation to traditional beliefs and practices. In their implementation, therefore, the confidence of the people and, in particular, the understanding and goodwill of the elders of tribal communities are of the highest importance. It is therefore, necessary that welfare extension workers of all kinds should be found as far as possible from amongst the educated youth in tribal communities. In commending the adoption of new techniques tribal leadership should have a major role and any suggestion of imposition from without should be avoided, and for each step the ground should be carefully prepared in advance. The anthropologist, the administrator, the specialist and the social worker have to work together as a team, approaching the problems of the tribal people with sympathy, understanding and knowledge of the social psychology and needs of tribal communities. Tribal people have to be assisted largely through their own institutions. Details of development programmes should be formulated in consultation with members of advisory councils, leaders of tribal opinion and institutes engaged in the study of tribal problems. The tribal people should feel that these programmes are, in a real sense, a response to their own urge for better standards of living and the development of their culture. If the programmes are implemented with popular support, they will give the tribal people in all parts of the country a sense of partnership and integration with the nation as a whole.
4. Such an approach to tribal problems can be given effect to only through trained personnel and through close study of tribal needs and problems. With this in view, during the first five year plan, tribal institutes have been set up in eight States. Training institutes for field workers have been established in Madhya Pradesh and Bihar. In some States special surveys of the needs of tribal areas are now being organised. During the first plan an attempt has also been made to associate voluntary organizations with work in tribal areas. The Central Government have given grants to ten all-India organizations and nearly 200 local institutions have been aided by State Governments.
5. Development programmes in tribal areas may be broadly grouped under four heads(a) communications, (b) education and culture, (c) development of tribal economy, and (d) health, housing and water supply. During the first plan about Rs. 6 crores were spent on developing roads in tribal areas in Assam and other States. Bridle and hill paths to the extent of 2,340 miles were constructed in a number of States, including Assam, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra and Vindhya Pradesh.
6. Considerable importance must be attached to the education of tribal people. An important step in this direction has been the training, in Hyderabad and elsewhere, of an increasing number of tribals as teachers. To facilitate teaching through tribal dialects, special text books have been prepared in Hyderabad, Assam, NEFA and Bihar. So far eight tribal dialects have been taken up in this manner. Assistance has been given through scholarships, grants for books, hostel fees and other ways to tribal students. Over 4,50,000 tribal students were in receipt of assistance. By the end of the first plan about 4000 schools will have been established in tribal areas of different kinds. This includes more than one thousand Ashram and Sevashrm schools which have been established in tribal areas, specially in Bombay, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh and about 650 sanskarkendras, balwadis, community centres etc. in the States of Bombay, Bihar, Madhya Bharat and Rajasthan. The establishment of Ashram schools in tribal areas in all States will be one of the principal education programmes for the second plan.
7. The reconstruction of tribal economies presents a number of challenging problems and it is essential that solutions should be based on a close study of social, economic and technical aspects. Among the more significant of these is the question of shifting cultivation and its replacement by settled agriculture. In Bombay, Hyderabad, Bihar and Madhya Bharat the bulk of the tribal people are already practising settled agriculture and the question is, in the main, one of improving agricultural methods and assisting the tribal people to increase their production. On the other hand, in Assam, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra a large proportion of the tribal population is engaged in shifting cultivation. Shifting cultivation is associated necessarily with marginal living standards. Apart from customs and traditions connected with shifting cultivation, a number of obstacles in its replacement relate to availability of suitable land for agriculture and the cost entailed in its development and settlement.
8. In a number of States, small-scale experiments have been carried out for evolving improved methods on shifting cultivation and for establishing settled agricultural colonies. In Assam since 1954, 9 demonstration centres have been set up, 3 in the Garo Hills districts, 3 in Mikir Hills, 2 in Mizo district and one in the North Cachar Hills district At these centres improved patterns of land utilisation are demonstrated to tribal people. These involve afforestation of hill tops and slopes with wattle plantation, cultivation of coffee, cashewnut along the slopes and soil conservation measures. In Andhra, in the East and West Godavari districts, colonisation schemes have been undertaken. Pilot schemes have also been introduced in Bastar and other tribal districts in Madhya Pradesh. In Orissa over 2000 tribal families have been settled in 69 agricultural colonies which have been so far established.
9. Although the problem of replacing shifting cultivation needs to be studied further, from the work which has already been done certain broad conclusions appear to emerge. Provided the necessary conditions are created there may be no great unwillingness on the part of the tribal people to give up shifting cultivation. These conditions are (i) provision of fertile and, where possible, of irrigated land, (ii) assistance by way of bullocks, implements, seeds, finance, etc., and (iii) steps to ensure that moneylenders and merchants are not permitted to exploit the tribal people. Further, experiments suggest that steep slopes and the upper regions of hills should be permanently afforested. On the lower slopes, jhuming might be practised without damage if measures are taken to preserve the fertility of the soil. At lower levels and on gentle slopes terrace cultivation may be undertaken. The various gradations of shifting and settled cultivation which may be possible in an area will depend largely on the nature of the soil and the practical alternatives open to the tribal people. Where jhum-ing continues to be practised care should be taken to avoid indiscriminate cutting down of forests and adequate intervals between the cultivation on the same land should be provided for. Apart from various facilities and technical and financial assistance, education has a large role to play in improving methods of cultivation in tribal areas. Adaptations of existing practices are necessarily a long term process and quick results are not to be expected, but it is important that for each tribal area a careful programme suited to local conditions should be worked out and followed through in cooperation with local tribes.
10. A considerable proportion of the tribal people live in forest areas, so that the manner in which forest resources are exploited has a great deal of bearing On their welfare. Care has to be taken to ensure that regulations relating to the collection of forest produce, grazing, meeting everyday requirements for firewood, etc:, do not cause hardship. In many ways, the penetration of forest contractors into the tribal economy has been harmful. During the first five year plan 653 forest labour cooperative have been established and, where necessary assistance and guidance has been given, they have generally succeeded. Increasingly, in tribal areas forest contracts should be given to co-operative societies and they should also be assisted in the collection and processing of minor forest produce. Where cooperatives are established special care to ensure integrity on the part of officials is of the utmost importance.
11. A problem which causes concern in tribal area is that of indebtedness. The creditors, who are commonly money-lenders, merchants or contractors, sometimes acquire a strangle-hold over tribesmen and take away a large proportion of the current produce. We suggest a closer study of this problem with a viewto assessing how large and widespread it is in actual fact, and also taking suitable measures to eliminate past debts and provide for supply of easy credit in the future. It should be added that in a number of States some relief by way of reduction on accumulated debts has already been given and laws have been enacted for protecting the rights of tribal communities in lands occupied by them. During the first five year plan 312 multi-purpose co-operative societies were established in tribal areas and in Orissa, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh 350 grain golas set up by the Government are now functioning as grainbanks. The economic life of the tribal people and their customs are specially adapted to successful organisation on co-operative and community lines. Tribal co-operatives should, as far as possible, be multi-purpose in character, providing for credit, supply of consumer goods and marketing at the same time. The principle of co-operation has application in almost every field of economic life.
12. During the first five year plan 111 cottage industry centres have been established in tribal areas. Tribesmen have considerable inherited skill and it is essential that their arts and crafts should receive encouragement and support and they should be given facilities for vocational training. There are large number of subsidiary industries such as bee-keeping, basket-making, sericulture, spinning and weaving, fruit preservation and the manufacture of palm-gur which can be developed. Peripatetic demonstration-cum-training parties have been found useful in Bombay and elsewhere.
13. Although tribesmen live close to nature, invariably their health and physique are poor. They suffer from various diseases such as malaria, yaws, tuberculosis, small pox, and venereal diseases and skin and eye diseases. In the main, to a large extent these are due to lack of clean drinking water, nutritive food, and of protection against extremes of climate. At the end of the first plan, 3144 dispensaries and mobile health units have been established in tribal areas. Assistance for constructing drinking water wells has also been given on a considerable scale. Health surveys have been initiated in some States with a view to studying the general condition of health among tribal people and the methods and practices generally adopted by them for healing. A difficulty encountered in carrying out this service is the inaccessibility of tribal populations who frequently live in the interior of forests. To the extent communications are available, experience suggests that mobile medical units are specially suited to tribal areas. The centres at which considerable numbers of tribals are living together are few and far between so that dispensaries of the usual kind have to be supplemented by other means.
14. In the 'chapter on Community Development and National Extension reference has been made to the manner in which the National Extension Movement is to be worked in tribal areas so as to co-ordinate fully with the welfare programmes described in this chapter. In tribal areas national extension service blocks will be demarcated on the basis of an average population of about 25,000 instead of about 60,000 adopted elsewhere. In the most backward tnbal areas it is proposed to undertake about 40 multi-purpose pilot projects in which, along with national extension activities, additional programmes will be integrated. The advantage in taking up these latter programmes in national extension areas is that the trained personnel available there can be utilised to the best advantage. In the pilot projects all aspects of tribal life will be taken up at the same time, such as, encouragement of settled forms of agriculture in place of shifting cultivation, improvement of agriculture, provision of medical and public health services, improvement of communications, development of arts and crafts, organisation of cooperatives and the establishment of community welfare centres. Community welfare centres have not yet been established in tribal areas on any large scale. This is an item of activity which should receive much greater attention during the second five year plan. Such centres are a valuable method for developing local participation and leadership and are specially suited for associating the best type of local workers as well as others from more advanced areas.
15. For the second five year plan an amount of about Rs. 47 crores has been earmarked for programmes of tribal welfare compared to about Rs. 25 crores in the first five year plan. Since the general development programmes in tha second plan are also larger in scope, the two sets of programmes together should go far to stimulate development in tribal areas. Broadly, programmes in the second plan follow the lines of those adopted in the first plan, in the course of which useful experience in promoting different activities has been obtained and the personnel of tribal welfare departments have gained closer knowledge of tribal conditions and problems. Out of Rs. 47 crores, a little over Rs. 27 crores are provided in the plans of States (which include the element of Central assistance), and about Rs. 20 crores in the programme of the Ministry of Home Affairs for schemes sponsored by the Central Government The total outlay on tribal welfare programmes is proposed to be distributed as follows:
16. Programmes in the States.In the State plans priority has been given to the development of communication for which Rs. 6.5 crores have been earmarked. It is proposed to construct 10,200 miles of bridle and hill paths and 450 bridges. States have also provided for the development of about 36,600 acres of land, regeneration of 6,570 acres of forest lands, distribution of agricultural implements and pedigree bulls, training of about 4,000 persons in various crafts and the establishment of 825 cottage industries centres. In its plan, Assam has provided for 670 stipends for giving vocational training to tribal students. 45 training-cum-production centres have been included in orissa's second plan and 87 industrial and technical training centres for tribal students have been provided in the remaining States. For developing settled agriculture, 186 colonies comprising more than 12,000 families are to be set up. About 350 grain golas, which were established during the first five year plan are to be turned into full-fledged cooperatives and 800 additional forest multi-purpose cooperative societies are to be established. In Andhra, the State Government have created a special agency for providing hillmen with credit facilities to purchase their produce at reasonable rates and for supplying their requirements at market rates.
17. The expansion of educational facilities in tribal areas is to be speeded up. The Ministry of Education have earmarked Rs. 11.38 crores for post-matric scholarships for scheduled tribes, scheduled castes and other backward classes, scheduled tribes alone getting 33,000 stipends. It is proposed to open 3,187 schools and 398 hostels and to provide scholarships and other concessions to about 3,00,000 tribal students. The plan contemplates the establishment of 200 community and cultural centres. The production of textbooks in tribal dialects, improvement of the curriculum for tribal schools and research work in tribal activities are to be specially emphasised. Tribal research institutes established during the first plan will be assisted by the Central Government. In Bombay tribal research is being carried on by the Anthropological Society of Bombay, the Gujarat Research Society and the University of Bombay. In Assam the department of folk-lore and tribal culture in the Gauhati University has a scheme for collecting data relating to the social and cultural life of the tribal groups in the eastern States.
18. The programme for the provision of health services includes the setting up of 600 dispensaries and mobile health' units and sinking of 15,000 drinking water wells in tribal areas. Arrangements for the training of nurses and' midwives from amongst the tribal people are also to be made. Since the housing conditions of the tribal people are extremely unsatisfactory the States have made a provision of'about Rs. 60 lakhs for constructing 18,800 houses and it is also proposed to form 56 housing societies for undertaking construction programmes.
19' Centrally sponsored schemes.In addition to the above, a number of schemes will be sponsored by the Central Government with a view to tackling the special problems of scheduled tribes and scheduled areas in a more intensive manner than was possible in the past. These include multi-purpose projects to which reference has already been made, colonisation schemes, construction of houses, construction of new roads and improvement of existing means of communications in scheduled and tribal areas, opening of new medical and health units to eradicate diseases such as leprosy, V.D. etc., construction of drinking water wells, development of cottage industries, vocational and technical training, and training of welfare workers. These schemes will generally be taken up in the most backward areas of the States, so that they can produce a clear impact.
20. The programme budget for a community development block involves an outlay ofRs. 12 lakhs. It is proposed to add a further amount ofRs. 15 lakhs per block for carrying out the additional programme described earlier in the chapter. In all a sum ofRs. 6.5 crores is to be spent on 40 multi-purpose pilot projects during the second plan period. In addition, a sum of Rs. 1.3 crores has been earmarked for tackling the problem of shifting cultivation in States such as Assam, Manipur, Tripura, Orissa, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Andhra.
21..It is proposed to spend Rs. 4 crores on the improvement of means of communication in tribal areas. With this sum about 450 miles of motorable roads will be constructed and another 7200 -miles of bridle paths will be constructed or improved.
22. For housing, it is proposed to earmark a sum of about Rs. L77 crores with a target of about 27,000 houses. The beneficiaries will contribute in the form of manual labour and building materials are proposed to be provided under this scheme. A sum of Rs. 0.53 crore has been earmarked for ensuring supply of pure drinking water in the tribal areas. 26,000 wells and 2 reservoirs, one in Assam and the other in Manipur will be constructed with this amount. In addition, about 33 special clinics or mobile dispensaries will be set up to combat diseases like leprosy, V.D., T.B., etc., and 5 Centres will be opened for the training of 400 mid-wives. A sum of about Rs. 0.50 crore has been earmarked for this purpose.
23. A sum of Rs. 3.52 crores has been allocated for the economic uplift of scheduled tribes which will cover schemes such as the establishment of multipurpose cooperative societies, forest cooperatives, training-cum-production centres for various cottage industries and grants for economic aid to the trainees to enable them to settle in small industries. A provision ofRs. 0.75 crores has also been made for opening technical schools to give training in mechanical and civil engineering in certificate courses for training of tribals in agriculture and for training teachers. The establishment of a technical institute at Imphal has already been approved. Similar institutes are proposed to be established in Assam, Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh at a cost ofRs. 15 lakhs per institute so that tribal youths can receive training nea^- their own areas.
24. As compared with other tribal areas those in the eastern States, that is, Assam, Manipur. Tripura and the North East Frontier Agency, have special characteristics and problems. They are sparsely populated and covered with forest; they have heavy rainfall; the. communications are difficult and limited and few amenities have reached the people. The major problems in these areas are communications and shifting cultivation. These have received special consideration in the second plan. Over Rs. 15 crores have been provided in the second plan for tribal welfare in Assam, Manipur and Tripura. In the North East Frontier Agency against a provision ofRs. 4.2 crores in the first plan a total outlay of Rs. 9.5 crores has been provided in the second plan. Inadequate communications are a serious hindrance in developing welfare activities and schemes like base hospitals at Pasighat and Tuensang proposed in the first plan could not be implemented primarily due to this difficulty. Efforts will be made to construct new paths and roads with the cooperation of the people. Projects begun in the first plan for connecting Divisional headquarters with all-weather roads will be completed. It is also proposed to build major roads which would open up the Tuensang, Lohit and Siang Frontier Divisions. Mule paths, 6 to 10 feet in width, will be provided over routes extending to 3152 miles and many distant places at present out of reach will be connected. There are certain places which can only b reached by aircraft; accordingly, it is proposed to bull a number of air-strips and landing places.
25. During the first five year plan considerable difficulty was experienced in assessing the progress of various programmes for the development and welfare of tribals and tribal areas. The system of reporting on development schemes in this field is being improved. The Ministry of Home Affairs propose to set up an evaluation organisation for assessing work done for scheduled tribes as well as other backward groups. In all a provision of Rs. 2.9 crores has been made in the second plan 'administration' for strengthening, supervision, coordination and control of welfare programmes. Lack of technical personnel and trained staff has been the major obstacle in the eastern States and to meet this problem the Government of India have approved the formation of a new cadre described as the Indian Frontier Administrative Service (IFAS), which will provide trained officers for Grade I and Grade II administrative posts in NEFA, Manipur and Tripura. The cadre comprises at present of 43 Class I posts23 in Grade I and 20 in Grade II. For subordinate services in these areas suitable arrangements are being worked out. There is also need for social workers who will serve the tribal people and tribal areas by living among them and sharing their life. Special emphasis is being placed ob getting as many tribal officers as possible and training them to work in their own areas. For advising on the implementation of development programmes for backward classes, the Ministry of Home Affairs propose to set up a central advisory board for the welfare of schduled tribes and another such board for scheduled castes.
26. The welfare of Harijans (scheduled castes) is mainly the responsibility of State Governments. The Constitution provides several safeguards for the protection of the interests of scheduled castes. Development programmes for scheduled castes have been formulated with the object of improving their social status and providing them fuller educational and economic opportunities. Before the first five year plan in a few States ameliorative measures were introduced. A substantial programme for the eradication ofuntouchability was begun. Out of the total provision in the first plan, Rs. 7 crores were earmarked for the welfare of scheduled castes.
27. The Constitution has abolished untouchabi-lity and has forbidden its practice in any form. State Governments and all-India voluntary organisations with help from the Centre have undertaken extensive propaganda and publicity with a view to mobilising public opinion against untouchability. Nevertheless, the practice still persists indirectly in some form or other although on a greatly reduced and diminishing scale. With the enactment of the Untouchability (Offences) Act and its enforcement from June, 1955 the practice of untouchability has been made a cognisable offence.
28. In the second plan Rs. 21.28 crores have been earmarked for the welfare of scheduled castes. Besides this a sum of Rs. 6.25 crores has been allocated for Centrally sponsored schemes which include (1) housing, (2) drinking water supply, (3) economic uplift and (4) aid to voluntary organisations and publicity for removal ofuntouchability. The special programmes proposed for Harijans are intended to supplement the general development.programmes in each State.
29. During the first plan 4500 wells were sunk. In the second plan provision has been made in the plans of States, for sinking 15,200 wells and under a Centrally sponsored scheme 8,200 more wells are proposed to be provided. Also 93,300 houses and house sites are to be provided at a cost of about Rs. 3.48 crores. -In addition, Rs. 1.77 crores are provided for the construction of 36,000 houses under a Centrally sponsored scheme. In implementing the scheme segregation of any kind is to be avoided. Care will also be taken to see that those who are extremely backward receive priority in the matter of housing. Since scavenging condemns 9 section of the population to untouchability, it is proposed that in new housing schemes, scavenger-free lavatories should be built. In existing houses, where open latrines exist they should be converted into scavenger-free latrines. State plans also provide for the establishment of over 80 cooperative housing societies.
30. Under the State Plans about 7000 Harijan students are to be trained at special craft training centres. Under the Centrally sponsored schemes, 166 training-cum-production centres will be opened for scheduled castes which will train 33,444 persons in various crafts and trades during the plan period. The trainees will also be given subsidies for settling in trade. Those who get land will be given subsidies for agricultural operations. In all, an amount ofRs. 231.5 lakhs has been earmarked for the Centrally sponsored economic uplift schemes for the scheduled castes.
31. The increase in population unaccompanied by a proportionate expansion in employment opportunities has borne harshly on Harijans. It is, thererfore, necessary not only to increase work opportunities for them but also to provide comprehensive educational programmes for them, so as to enable them to take advantage of reservations and other administrative concessions which the Central and State Governments have made available for them. In the second plan, provision has also been made for over 3 million free-ships and scholarships and for 6000 schools and hostels. The Ministry of Education has provided for 1,07,000 scholarships.
32. It is necessary to create a vigilant public opinion for the proper enforcement of the Untouchability (Offences) Act For this purpose it is intended to utilise the services of trained pracharakas. There is vast scope in this field for non-official effort A sum of Rs. 50 lakhs for rendering assistance to voluntary organisations working for the welfare of scheduled castes and a further sum of Rs. 25 lakhs for undertaking publicity and propaganda campaign through films, posters etc. have been provided by the Ministry of Home Affairs.
33. In the first five year plan with a provision ofRs. 3.5 crores a beginning was made for the resettlement of ex-criminal tribes and for training them in the ways of settled community life. Though progress has been slow concentrated efforts are being made to enable them to attain better economic standards. Stress has been laid on their economic rehabilitation and on weaning away the younger generation from the antisocial practices of the past. During the first plan period 42,056 students belonging to ex-criminal tribes were awarded scholarship, stipends, boarding and book grants and 291 schools, including balwadis, ashram schools and sanskar kendras were opened. Vocational training and hostel accommodation was' also provided for a number of students. About 3629 families were helped in agriculture through subsidies, 113 cooperative societies were organised, and 33 cottage industry centres were established. Rehabilitation grants were also given to a number of families. There are now 17 settlements and 30 colonies for the welfare of ex-criminal tribes. Colonization schemes at Naroda in Bombay and at Bhatpurwa in U.P. have produced useful results. The old caste panchayat system has been discontinued by the settlers who have formed themselves into a new association.
34. The programme for ex-criminal tribes, for which a provision of Rs. 2.94 crores has been made in the second plan, includes schemes of colonization and rehabilitation of 15,246 families, most of whom-are still leading a nomadic life. Under this programme 8157 houses will be constructed and 394 wells sunk. Special efforts, will also be made through 67 sanskar ken-dras and balwadis and 52 ashrams schools to wean their children away from criminal habits. Through community centres adults will be taught better ways of living. In all 1,16,432 scholarships and other educational concessions have been provided and the Ministry of Home Affairs has provided a sum of Rs. 1.11 crore under its own schemes for the settlement of ex-criminal tribes. It is estimated that roughly it will cost about Rs. 1600 to settle a family'on land provided the land is made available by the State Government. On this basis it is proposed to settle 7100 families of ex-criminal tribes during the second plan period.
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