|3rd Five Year Plan||
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Manpower Planning of all the resources for development, perhaps the most fundamental at the present time is trained manpower. Owing to the rapid advance in science and technology and the growing complexity of industrial and economic organisation, there is increasing demand for larger numbers of highly skilled and trained personnel drawn from different disciplines and functioning generally in composite teams rather than as individuals. As the economy develops, the requirements of individuals with more advanced and specialised training and of scientifically trained workers increase, while the need for persons at lower levels of skill and for the semi-skilled and unskilled steadily diminishes. It takes five years or more to give the basic training needed by an engineer or a doctor, and a much longer period to provide research and practical experience essential for filling positions of greater responsibility. To secure the required outturn of scientific and technical personnel and build up an adequate foundation of scientific research may take a nation, a whole generation.
2. In relation to the long-term economic development of a country, the extent of trained manpower available and the training facilities established constitute a major determinant of the measure of advance which can be achieved in different directions. As the economy grows, there has to be emphasis not only on numbers but also on quality and experience. Problems of producing the requisite trained manpower have to be seen in their broader context. On the one hand, they bear upon the character of education at each stage in school and college and on life in the home ; on the other, they encompass the entire system of management and organisation in industrial and other undertakings, and the lines along which research is undertaken and its results applied.
3. In the context of programmes for the training of manpower, the demands of rapid economic development are like those of a national emergency. It calls for the reorganisation and expansion of existing institutions, development of large numbers of new institutions, special measures for obtaining and training teachers and instructors, introduction of new techniques for intensifying training and shortening the periods needed, expanding facilities for imparting practical training, and developing new ways of making use of trained personnel as a scarce key resource. In the light of experience and assessment of the developing needs of the economy there must be constant re-examination of ideas and practices in vogue in the field of traming. In manpower planning the economy has to be viewed as a whole, the entire range of facilities and possibilities available in all undertakings', whether public or private, being deemed to be at the service of the community. There is need to encourage experiment and innovation on the part of every organisation and training institution and to provide ever-increasing opportunities for original and creative activity.
4. Over the first two Plans valuable experience in manpower planning has been gained in several fields. There has been considerable expansion in facilities for the training of scientists, engineers and technologists, of agricultural, veterinary and health and medical personnel and of skilled craftsmen. Steel plants and other major industrial projects have made it necessary to take up large-scale training, both within the country and abroad, and in this other nations have also generously shared their experience and facilities. Trained personnel are required in large numbers, not only for the development of industry and transport and power but also in many other fields. Rural development programmes undertaken in community development and other areas have already involved large training programmes. As the role of democratic institutions at the district, block and village levels, of the cooperative movement, of municipal bodies and of" voluntary organisations becomes more decisive in fields close to the welfare of the community as a whole, their need for trained personnel will become even more marked and much larger numbers of trained workers will be needed. Progress in education, health services, family planning and welfare programmes, as envisaged in the Third and later Plans, will also depend to no small extent on the adequate supply of teachers and other trained personnel.
5. In each field personnel requirements have to be estimated carefully and over a long period. This calls for improved statistical information, and development of techniques of manpower assessment so that the necessary estimates can be made with reasonable accuracy and a comprehensive picture built up for the economy as a whole. Estimates of personnel requirements have necessarily to be reviewed from time to time in the light of changing needs and experience. Manpower planning is, thus, an integral part of the economic plans formulated by the Central and State Governments and their agencies, and, within their own specific fields by industrial associations and other organisations representing different activities or interests as well as by individual undertakings and institutions, botn public and private. They call for constant interchange of knowledge and experience and for special investigations. In view of the wide range of issues to be considered, and the great importance of manpower planning for the country's future development, it is proposed shortly 10 set up an Institute of Applied Manpower Research, which will work in close collaboration with the Central and State Governments and with industrial and other organisations. Among the main aims of the Institute will be to provide a broad perspective of requirements of trained manpower for economic development in different fields, arrange for facilities tor advanced training in manpower planning, develop methods for training and building up the existing work-force, evolve methods for identifying and developing talented persons, and, generally, secure the most effective utilisation of the country's human resources.
6. As compared to the First
Plan, the Second Plan presented problems of manpower planning on a much
larger scale. To a considerable extent, profiting from the lessons of
the Second Plan, steps were taken sufficiently in advance to secure trained
personnel for the Third Plan. In many fields, though by no means in all,
training programmes, which form part of the Third Plan, are designed to
produce trained workers for the still more intensive development envisaged
in the Fourth and later plans. There are still large areas in which personnel
with adequate experience will not be available in sufficient number, and
small numbers of trained and experienced persons will have to carry a
disproportionate load. In these fields, while making the maximum use of
the available indigenous personnel, there should be no hesitation in taking
advantage of technical assistance programmes and other sources for obtaining
such highly trained personnel as may be needed. Since the requirements
of personnel are commonly reckoned chiefly in terms of assumptions and
possibilities, based on past or current experience and unforeseen demands
will continue to be thrown up on account of the rapid technological changes
within the country and abroad and the growing needs of the economy, the
present estimates are likely to need upward revision. It will be of particular
importance during the Third Plan to reassess requirements in different
fields from time to time and to take a view of these requirements not
merely for the Fourth Plan, but also for the Fifth Plan. In this Chapter
it is proposed to set out briefly the present estimates of requirements
of personnel and the training programmes for which the Third Plan provides
in sucli fields as engineering, technology and science, agriculture and
rural development, education, health and social welfare, and statistics
7. Requirements of engineers and technicians may be considered at three principal levelsgraduates, diploma holders and skilled craftsmen. In each group there has been rapid increase in the additions needed during each Plan period. On present estimates 51,000 additional engineering graduates are likely to be required for the Third Plan as compared to about 29,000 in the Second Plan. the demand in the Fourth Plan is estimated at about 80,000. Estimates for different branches of engineering are given in the Table below :
Table 1 : Estimated additional requirements for graduates in engineering and technology
8. The additional requirements of diploma holders in engineering and technology in the Third Plan are estimated at about 100,000 compared to about 56,000 in the Second Plan;estimates for the Fourth Plan are at present placed at about 125,000. The break-up of the additions needed by different branches of engineering is shown in the following Table:
Table 2 : Estimated additional requirements of diploma holders in engineering and technology
-Includes sugar technologists, jute technologists, leather technologists, architects and town planners, automobile, aeronautical, marine, public heatlh and sanitary, and agricultural engineering personnel.
9. With the stepping up of industrial development in the Third Plan and developments visualised for the Fourth Plan, the requirements of mechanical, electrical and chemical engineers will increase relatively faster than those of civil engineers. There will also be greater need for training specialists in branches like mining, metallurgy and other technologies. These changing trends will be taken into account while determining the distribution of the additional facilities for engineering education which are now being provided. In the course of the Third Plan the admission capacity of engineering colleges will increase from 13,860 at the end of the Second Plan to 19,140, the corresponding increase in polytechnics being from 25,570 to 37,390. Provision is also being made for part time and correspondence courses in engineering and technology. Estimates of requirements and out-turn ot engineering personnel for the third and Fourth Plans are indicated in the Table below :
Table 3 : Estimated additional requirements and outturn of engineering personnel
The shortage of diploma holders, which has been considerable during the Second Plan, will not be altogether made up in the Third Plan. The present plans need to be reviewed further from this aspect and in the light of more detailed information regarding the requirements of engineering personnel for ma]or industrial programmes wmch is likely to become available as programmes are worked out. Estimates for the Fourth Plan are provisional and will be studied in greater detail with reference to the possibilities of long-term economic development indicated in Chapter II.
10. Craftmen.The requirements for craft-men during the Third Plan are estimated at nearly 1.3 million, about 810,000 being in engineering trades and the rest in non-engineering trades. Several industries as well as establishments under the Railways, Posts and Telegraphs, Defence, etc., have their own training programmes. A proportion of skilled and semi-skilled workers are also trained through traditional methods, the skills being imparted from father to son. Facilities' for institutional training at centres maintained by State Governments in collaboration with the Ministry of Labour and Employment, are, thus, required for a much smaller number. The number of industrial training institutes and centres has increased from 59 in 1955-56 to 167 in 1960-61, and the Third Plan provides for a further addition of 151. The intake capacity increased correspondingly from 10,500 in 1955-56 to 42,000 at the end of the Second Plan, and will increase further during the Third Plan to 100,000. The apprenticeship training scheme, which was to be implemented by industry on a voluntary basis with a measure of support from Government, did not make much progress during the Second Plan. Legislation will be shortly introduced for placing apprenticeship on a compulsory basis. The programme for evening classes for industrial workers will also be extended.
11. Inservice training programmes.Over the Second Plan inservice training programmes have been introduced by a large number of organisations, both public and private. These win be further enlarged. Thus, tne major industrial enterprises have set up then" own trammg schools, and some of them have also provided taciiities for apprenticeship training. For the training of personnel at higher levels, the National Laboratories, the Atomic Energy Commission, the Ministry of Irrigation and Power, the Meteorological Ltepartmem and others have arranged tor special taciiities.
12. Scientific personnel.The National Register for Scientific and Technical Personnel maintained by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, carries about 106,000 registrations of whom Indians abroad account for nearly 5000. Of the number registered with the Council, about 33,000 are post-graduates in science subjects or graduates in agriculture, and about 66,000 are engineers and technologists boih at the degree and diploma levels, me rest being specialists in medical profession. It is estimated that the coverage in the National Register is about 80 per cent of the total number of scientists. The "Scientists Pool" which has been maintained by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research for the last three years for providing temporary placements for highly qualified scientists and others, especially those returning to India from foreign countries so far assisted the selection of 653 scientists and technologists. The following Table brings out the position of post-graduate scientists in India:
Table 4 : Estimated additional scientific personnel
13. Enduring foundations for expansion of scientific education can be laid only through the provision of larger facilities for science education both in the secondary schools and at the university stage. The demand for scientists comes from many different directionsscience teachers, maintenance engineers, research scientists, etc. Out of 27,000 teachers required for colleges in the Third Plan, as many as 17,000 will be scientists. There has been marked increase in facilities for science education in universities as may be seen from the following Table :
Table 5 : Facilities for science education enrolment
By the end of the Third Plan, science as an elective subject will be available in 9,500 secondary schools out of a total of 21,800 and at the university stage facilities will be provided for additional enrolment of about 230,000 students in science out of a total of about 400,000 students.
The need for scientists for fundamental and applied research and employment of scientists in other fields will have to be reviewed continuously during the Third Plan and increase in facilities considered in the light of such estimates.
Ill. Agricultural and Rural Development
14. Programmes in agriculture and allied fields of development in the Third Plan entail a very considerable expansion in personnel. The necessary training facilities were developed to a large extent during the Second Plan, so that in most fields, the demands at present anticipated are expected to be met with only a small increase in the facilities available. However, the possibility of the total demands under different heads increasing as the Plan proceeds ha?, to be kept in view. Tables 6 and 7 below show the additional requirements of agricultural and allied personnel during the Third and Fourth Plans as at present estimated and the programme for expanding training facilities during the Third Plan:
Table 6 : Estimated additional requirements of agricultural and allied personnel
Table 7 Additional training facilities in the Third Plan
15. Agriculture.Besides the addition of 4 new agricultural colleges during the Third Plan, post-graduate courses are to be established in 5 existing agricultural colleges. For the framing of farmers' sons, on the lines of the vocational agricultural school at Manjri in Maharashtra, 50 new institutions are to be set up. Durin" the Second Plan an Agricultural University waS established in Uttar Pradesh, and further proposals for setting up a few other Agricultural Universities are at present being examined. Agricultural Universities aim at bringing together a number of related fields of study, such as agriculture, animal husbandry, veterinary science, dairying, basic sciences and humanities, and at integrating teaching with research and extension work. to secure an adequate supply of qualified teachers for agricultural colleges, training wings are proposed to be ,-iet up at selected institutions, A Staff College for agricultural personnel in the senior and middle grades is also to be established. The scheme of post-graduate fellowships will be extended during the Third Plan.
16. Animal husbandry and veterinary science.Facilities for post-graduate education in veterinary science are to be developed at Izatnagar. To provide training in extension methods in animal husbandry, extension wings are to be attached to all veterinary colleges with provision for practical training at livestock demonstration farms.
17. Dairying.Dairy development is a relatively new field in which only small numbers of trained persons are at present available. Facilities for training at the diploma level exist at Anand, Bangalore, Bombay, Karnal and Naini. They will also be developed at Haringhata in West Bengal. The Agricultural Research Institute at Anand will be developed into a degree college. Dairy technologists are being trained at the Central College of Dairying at Karnal. Short-term inservice training programmes as well as courses in dairying for the Master's degree and special refresher courses are to be organised at the National Dairy Research Institute.
18. Forestry.In recent years there has been appreciable increase in training facilities for forest officers at Dehradun and for rangers both at Dehradun and at Coimbatore. The training facilities at the existing institutions will be augmented further with a view to meeting increased demand on account of Third Plan programmes.
19. Fisheries.During the Third Plan, a Central Institute of Fisheries Education will be established at Bombay for providing training in all aspects of fisheries, including extension, statistics, marketing, etc. An institute of fisheries operatives will also be set up at Cochin. The existing Central Institutes for Inland Fisheries at Calcutta and for Marine Fisheries at Mandapam will be expanded.
20. Soil conservation.In relation to the large soil conservation programme included in the Third Plan, the existing training facilities will need to be substantially strengthened, especially for extension personnel and field workers. The Plan at present provides for doubling the intake capacity of the training centre at Dehradun from 30 to 60, and increase in the capacity of the four existing research-cum-training centres at Kotah, Hazaribagh, Ootacamund and Bellary from 240 to 400. Some of the agricultural colleges also have plans for providing training in soil conservation.
21. Community development.By October, 1963, the community development programme will have been introduced throughout the country. The programme now serves 3100 development blocks out of a total of about 5000. Having regard to the shortages existing at the end of the Second Plan in certain categories, estimates of requirements for the Third Plan are as follows :
Table 8 : Estimated additional requirements of personnel for community development programmes*
With the introduction of Panchayati Raj, arrangements for the training of non-omcials at training institutes, training camps, seminars, etc. are being developed further.
the course of the Second Plan, there has been considerable expansion in
the facilities for training in cooperation. In 1960, there were in all
62 institutions for training junior cooperative personnel, 13 institutions
for intermediate grades of personnel, and a college at Poona for senior
personnel. For training non-officials in the cooperative movement, including
office bearers and members of cooperative societies, 368 training units
were sponsored by the All-India Cooperative Union. The training programmes
for the Third Plan are described in the Chapter on Cooperation.
24. Throughout the Second Plan there has been considerable shortage of teachers in science and in crafts. Four regional colleges are being established during the Third Plan with the object specially of training teachers in science and in special subjects. In universities and colleges also there will be a large demand for science teachers. It is reckoned that of about 27,000 additional teachers in colleges required during the Third Plan, about 17,000 will be for science. Similarly, the expansion of technical education in the Third Plan will call for as many as 9,000 additional teachers for engineering colleges and polytechnics. Various emergency and short-term measures are being taken to meet shortages of teachers until sufficient numbers become available in the ordinary course, but the situation is likely to remain difficult throughout the Third Plan, and, in some fields, greater use could be made of part-time and other professional personnel.
25. Facilities for training instructors in crafts for industrial training institutes and centres have been greatly expanded during the Second Plan. There are at present four central training institutes with a total capacity of about 550. The capacity of these institutes will now be increased to over 1,000 and along with the three new institutes, which it is proposed to set up, the total capacity will increase to about 1,800, outturn during the Plan period being about 8,000.
26. Health and medical personnel.For carrying out the Third Plan programmes, health and medical personnel, specially in ancillary categories such as nurses, midwives and health visitors will fall short of requirements. In Table 9 below proposals for increase in training facilities during the Third Plan are set out along with the position existing at the end of the Second Plan.
Table 9 : Additional training facilities for health and medical personnel
In addition to the programmes above, the Plan also provides for increase in admissions each year to dental colleges from 280 to 400. Four new dental colleges will be set up and 10 existing institutions expanded. A problem which calls both for the rapid expansion of post-graduate education and for various short-term measures, is the shortage of teachers in medical colleges which is at present estimated at about 2,000 and is likely to increase further.
27. Family planning.Another important field in which it is urgent to secure additional personnel is family planning. To make family planning services available much more widely than at present, it is essential to provide the necessary family planning services at primary health centres. Large numbers of women workers and others have to be recruited and trained. The programmes which have been drawn up are likely to be inadequate and should be considered further.
28. Social welfare.In welfare programmes such as are undertaken in community development blocks, tribal development blocks and welfare extension projects, frequently there are shortages ot trained women workers. Welfare work among ivomen and children, particularly in rural areas, has to be undertaken in the face of obvious difficulties, and workers have to be specially selected and trained. For attracting a sufficient number of women to take up such vocations as those of gram sevikas, nurses, health visitors, teachers and child welfare workers (bal sevikas) special attention should be given to working conditions, provision of residential accommodation, facilities for transport and opportunities for work with voluntary organisations like mahila mandals,
V. Administration, Statistics And Technical Assistance
29. Administrative services.The requirements of administrative personnel have increased steadily in recent years. It is indeed inevitable that each Plan should not only lead to substantial increase in the numbers needed, but should also place challenging burdens and responsibilities on the administrative as well as technical services. Thus, over the past decade, the authorised strength of the Indian Administrative Service has risen from about 1,200 to wel| over 2,000. In the Third Plan, the net additional requirements for the Indian Administrative Service are estimated at 400. Much larger increases are to be expected in the State Administrative Services whose responsibilities have already grown and will increase further with the development of Panchayati Raj institutions. The requirements of administrative personnel at different levels in the States are at present being studied. Along with these, a review is being undertaken of the existing arrangements for tram-ing and supervision and other aspects on which the quality of administrative personnel depends to a large extent.
30. Facilities for the training of administrators have been developed at the National Academy of Administration at Mussoorie, the Administrative Staff College at Hyderabad and the Indian Institute of Public Administration in Delhi. Some State Governments have set up their own institutions for the training of the State administrative and executive services. To assist personnel engaged in development in the States it is also proposed to work out a programme for training in the field of economic and social planning. It is proposed to establish two All-India Institutes of Management for the training of higher managerial personnel required for industrial undertakings, both in the public and in the private sectors.
31. Statistical personnel.There has been considerable expansion in the demand for personnel with statistical training. Over the period of the Second Plan, the number of persons with statistical training and background employed with the Central and State Governments has increased from about 4,000 to 10,000. The additional requirements for the Third Plan are estimated at about 6,000. There will also be increased requirements in private industry and commerce. The Indian Statistical Institute at Calcutta, which is an 'institution of national importance' under the Act passed by Parliament in 1959, has introduced a four-year course for the degree of Bachelor of Statistics and a further two-year course for the degree of Master of Statistics. The Institute also provides for specialised professional courses and for post-graduate research degrees. The Central Statistical Organisation conducts inservice training courses for statistical officers working in the Central Ministries and in the States at senior and intermediate levels and also for junior Government personnel, besides imparting training in official statistics to batches of students from the Indian Statistical Institute. Training courses in their special fields are being provided by the Institute of Agricultural Statistics, the All-India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, the Ministry of Education and the Forest Research Institute, Dehradun. State Statistical Bureaus arrange courses for in-service training for State statistical personnel at the intermediate and junior levels like district statistical officers, progress assistants in community development blocks and other field staff.
32. Technical assistance.Technical assistance schemes under the United Nations, Colombo Plan, the Technical Cooperation Agreement with the U.S.A. and arrangements for training with a number of other countries such as U.S.S.R., France, Netherlands, etc., and with foreign universities and Foundations have provided valuable opportunities for training over a large range of specialised and advanced fields of study, and several thousands of Indians have profited from them. In turn, to the extent possible, India has endeavoured to share its training facilities with other countries. An effort has also been made to meet such requests as have been received for trained personnel from India. To derive the maximum benefit from the various technical assistance programmes under which facilities are made available to India, it is essential that the gaps in personnel which are at present anticipated should be precisely identified and the selection of trainees and the scope of the training to be provided should be determined on the basis of careful study of requirements over the period of the Third and the Fourth Plans. In turn, in augmenting her own training facilities and in building up cadres of trained workers, due account should be taken of the demands from other countries which India may be called upon to meet in different fields in the coming years.
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