4th Five Year Plan
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Chapter 11:
IRRIGATION AND FLOOD CONTROL

Irrigation

The availability of water in adequate quantities and at the right time is one of the basic determinants of agricultural productivity. Climatic conditions in India are favourable to vegetative growth practically throughout the year. It is also well established that, given assured water supply and good seeds, high crop yields can be achieved by the application of fertilisers, manure and improved methods of farming. In fact, with certain exceptions, average yields are usually low and liable to large fluctuations from year to year, and the double-cropped area is hardly 15 per cent of the net sown area. One of the major impediments to the full exploitation of the possibilities of intensive agiiculture is the lack of assured and dependable water supply throughout the year. About four fifths of the country's cropped area depends exclusively on rainfall, most of it concentrated in a few months of the year. Even where the overall annual precipitation is high, the available moisture in the winter and summer months is not adequate to support multiple cropping. The rainfall in a large part of the cropped area is so low and uncertain in its distribution that it does not permit intensive cultivation even during the main crop season. The expansion of irrigation facilities in order to ensure timely and adequate water supply has thus, ever since the inception of planning, been an extremely important means of bringing about agricultural development.

11.2. The area under irrigation has increased substantially during the past 18 years. Major, medium and minor irrigation projects have all contributed to this result. The droughts of 1965-66 and 1966-67 further heightened the awareness of the need for faster development of irrigation facilities. Moreover, the possibilities offered by the new seed varieties both for increasing yields of cereal crops and for intensifying cultivation, are contingent on water resources. This has served to emphasise the efficient use of water as a problem demanding as much attention as expansion of irrigation. As an important aspect of optimal utilisation, it will be necessary to plan for the integrated use of both surface and ground water.

11.3. Surface Water.—The average annual surface water resources of the country have been placed at a total of about 168 million hectare metres1. Out of this, only about 56 million hectare metres can be used for irrigation on account of physiographical conditions. Up to 1951, 9.5 million hectare meties or about one-sixth of the usable flow had been utilised. By the end of the Third Plan, the volume of utilisation increased to 18.5 million hectare metres or nearly one-third of the total availability. It is estimated that during 1966—69, the utilisation increased by another 2 million hectare metres. It is proposed, during the Fourth Plan, to bring about an additional utilisation of 5 million hectare metres under major, medium and minor schemes, bringing the total utilisation to 25.5 million hectare metres or 46 per cent of the usable flow.

11.4. The ultimate area that can be irrigated from major, medium and minor schemes (excluding ground water) by using 56 million hectare meters of water has been assessed at 60 million hectares2. Further investigation in different States might indeed "icveal that this figure is somewhat on the low side. For the present, however, the country's irrigation potential may be placed at 45 million hectares under major and medium irrigation and 15 million hectares under minor irrigation. At the beginning of the First Plan, the irrigation from major and medium works was 9.7 million hectares and from minor works 6.4 million hectares. The potential created at the beginning of the Third Plan was 14.4 million hectares from major and medium schemes and 6.6 million hectares from minor schemes. The potential expected to be created by 1968-69 from major and medium scheme is 18.5 million hectares, and from minor schemes 8.1 million hectares. The balance of potantial that can be created is 26 million hectares through major and medium schemes and about 7 million hectares through minor schemes.

11.5. Ground Water.—It is estimated that about 22 million hectare metres of ground water can be exploited for irrigation purposes to serve 22 million hectares. At the beginning of the First Plan 6.5 million hectares had been developed. This increased to 8.2 million hectares at the beginning of the Third Plan and is expected to reach 10.9 million hectares by 1968-69 leaving a balance of about 11 million hectares to be covered

11.6. Out of the total potentially arable area of 175 million hectares3, 138 million hectares3 are under cultivation. The cropped area is 158 million hectares3. It is estimated that 82 million hectares can ultimately be irrigated from both surface and ground water sources. In order to have assured irrigation, it is important to create the balance of potential over a period of about 15 years for ground water and about 20 years for surface water.

  1. "Appraisal of water Resources : Analysis and Utilisation of Data" by Dr. A.N. Khosia, 1949.
  2. All irrigition potential and utilisation figures mentioned in this Chapter refer to gross areas i.e., including area sown more than once.
  3. Indian Agriculture in Brief, 1967—total area and classification of area (1964-65) table 2.10.

Table 1 : Development of Irrigation Potential and its Utilisation (million hectares)

Sl. No. item ultimate potential

1950-51

1960-61

1968-69

potential utilisation potential utilisation potential utilisation
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8)
1 surface water 60 16.1 16.1 21.0 19.7 26.6 25.0
2 major and medium 45 9.7 9.7 14.4 13.1 18.5 16.9
3 minor 15 6.4 6.4 6.6 6.6 8.1 8.1
4 ground water (minor) 22 6.5 6.5 8.2 8.2 10.9 10.9
5 Total 82 22.6 22.6 29.2 '27.9 37.5 35.5

Note : In the case of minor irrigation, utilisation has been assumed to be the same as potential, as actual utilisation figures are not available.

  1. Minor irrigation comprises ground water schemes and those surface water schemes which are estimated to cost up to Rs. 15 lakhs each.
  2. Medium schemes are those estimated to cost above Rs. 15 lakhs and up to Rs. 5 crores; major schemes are those above Rs. 5 crores.
  3. Please see para 11.19 for revised classification of irrigation schemes.

11.7. Major and Medium Schemes.—The targets and achievements with regard to total irrigation potential under major and medium schemes and the utilisation of the potential for 1960—69 are :

Table 2 : Potential and Utilisation under Major and Medium Irrigation Schemes (million hectares)

year

potential

utilisation

target achievement target achievement
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1960-61 16.6 14.4 15.1 13.1
1968-69 19.0 18.5 17.5 16.9

The percentage of achievement over the targets has considerably improved.

11.8. Minor Schemes.—Minor irrigation scheme include all ground water development projects as well as surface water projects. Most deep tubewell schemes aie community-based; open wells and shallow tube-wells, however, are usually constructed and owned by individuals. In either case, ground water provides the farmer with just the type of 'instant' and controlled irrigation which the new high-yielding varieties of seed demand. This fact, coupled with the increasing extension of electricity to rural areas, explains the expansion which has taken place in recent years in the development of ground water resources. The expansion has taken place not only in aieas which aie without any other source of irrigation but also in alluvial tracts already commanded by existing canal systems; ground water exists in comparatively copious quantities in such areas and enables the farmer to grow more than one crop on an assured basis. The remarkable development of giound water resources during recent years was stimulated by the droughts of 1965-66 and 1966-67 which also happened to coincide with the development of high-yielding varieties which perform best under conditions of controlled and timely irrigation. The increased availability of modern equipment for drilling and blasting and of pumpsets assisted in this process. The progress would not have been possible without commensurate financial resources. The expansion, reorganisation and strengthening of institutional sources of finances was, therefore, one of the most important developments which took place during this period. As against Rs. 112 crores from institutions such as the Agricultural Refinance Corporation, Land Development Banks, Central Co-operative Banks and Agro-Indusitries Corporations during the whole of the Third Plan period, the amount which was made available by these institutions during the three years 1966—1969 amounted to Rs. 230 crores. The net result of all these developments is reflected in the addition of 175,000 private tubewells during the period 1966—69 when the total number of such tubewells at the end of the Third Five Year Plan was only 80,000. Similarly, as against 2.2 lakh percolation wells which were improved by boring or deepening during the Third Plan, as many as 4.0 lakh wells were renovated during 1966—69.

11.9. An important factor in computing the increase of area under minor irrigation is depreciation on existing works. The net increase in irrigated area is the area of new irrigation less the depreciation1 on-existing works. Schemes for the stabilisation of irrigation cover areas wliere irrigation was previously available but is now made more certain through supplemental measures. Stabilisation also includes protection from flooding by means of small drainage and embankment schemes costing less than Rs. one lakh each. The progress for 1966—69 is :depreciation takes into account the irrigated area going out of use as a result of the .useful life of the existing works coming to an end.

Table 3 : Irrigated Area under Minor Irrigation (million hectares)

year new irrigation added depreciation on existing works net irrigated area (cumulative)

benefits through stabilisation

improvement of irrigation supply A drainage and embankment benefit
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
1950-51   12.9
1951-52 to          
1960-61 4.0 2.1 14.8 1.3 2.2
1961-62 to        
1968-69 6.0 1 1.9 19.0 2.0 1.0
(estimated)        

11.10. The food shortage during 1965 and 1966 led to a reorientation of the rural electrification programme. From the general objective of electrifying villages, the focus was shifted to the energisation of irrigation pumpsets^and tubewells. Crash programmes. were implemented with earmarked Central assistances. The actual investment during the Third Plan was Rs. 153 crores as against a Plan provision of Rs. 105 crores. During the three years 1966—69, the investment was about Rs. 150 crores. The achievements for 1960—69 are as follows in relation to the commencement and end of the period :

Table 4 : Energised Pump -sets

year achievement (thou. nos.)
(1) (2)
1960-61 192
1968-69 (estimated) 1087.6

Objectives

11.11. Some of the objectives of the Fourth Plan, specially those connected with maximisation of agricultural production, have already been mentioned, These include the integrated use and efficient management of water resources, both surface and ground;extension of irrigation, major, medium and minor;and, in regard to new projects, the choice wherever practicable—subject to the constraint of resources in the States sector—of those areas which are relatively deficient in assured rainfall as well as irrigation. Many existing projects are designed for single-crop irrigation and protection against failure of rain rather than for ensuring maximum agricultural production. The recent shift of emphasis towards optimal production from irrigated tracts will be kept in mind not only in the location and design of future works but in important details like the provision o'f field channels and drainage. Due attention will be given to other connected aspects of agricultural development in the command area of the projects such as land shaping, requirements of good seeds, fertilisers credits, roads and marketing facilities, at the time of project formulation itself. Existing canals and tubewells, wherever necessary, will be remodelled or supplemented by construction of subsidiary irrigation works. Attention will be paid to the maintenance of existing works.

11.12. Programmes ot minor irrigation will be dovetailed with rural electrification schemes for energising clusters of wells or tube-wells. The tocus of rural electrification will be the pumpset that is to be energised rather than the village- which is to be electrified. Among the new trends in the minor irrigation programme are the reduction of subsidies, stress on State or community works for helping the small farmer, larger provision of institutional finance for private works, and the building up of organisations in the States and at the Centre to survey and develop ground water schemes. There will be emphasis on proper maintenance of pumping machinery and the irrigation tanks.

11.13. On an average, it took about five to six years for effective utilisation of the potential created by major and even medium irrigation works. Better prices have given an incentive to the cultivator to reduce the delay in bringing his land under irrigated farming. Programmes of land-shaping, construction of field channels and diversified services for the supply of seed, fertiliser and credit have helped further to reduce the gap between creation and utilisation to an average of three to four years. Still further reduction has to be aimed at. Some of the practices mentioned above are being brought together in ayacut (area) development schemes. Ayacut (area) development schemes in the Nagarjunasagar and Kosi project areas have made noteworthy progress.

11.14. Irrigation is a State subject. Almost all the outlays have to be accommodated within the State Plan ceilings. In order to provide some weightage for major continuing works of irrigation and power, the Committee of the National Development Council had decided that 10 per cent of the aggregate amount of Central assistance should be reserved for allocation towards specified projects of different States. In the State Plan outlays, priority has been given to providing the maximum possible allocations considered essential for continuing the schemes on which appreciable progress has already been made. In respect of inter-State systems, such as Rajasthan Canal and Pong Dam project, progress in one State should correspond to that in another and should be maintained at the maximum pace feasible. This aspect has also been kept in view. There is emphasis in the Plan on the need for detailed investigations before formulation of new projects. The absence of adequate investigations has been a major cause of delays at different stages as well as increase in the estimates of cost. Provision has been made for adequate investigations of and advance action on new schemes for the Fifth Plan. It is necessary that the designing and construction of projects should take into account the latest findings of research and development of technology. Necessary provision has been made for research in the Plan.

11.15. Proposals for Major and Medium Schemes.— The spillover from continuing schemes and outlays for them are shown below :

Table 5 : Major and Medium Schemes (Rs. crores)

sl. no. scheme estimate imat-1 cost1 expenditure end of 1968-69' spillover allocation for fourth plan
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1 major schemes, each estimated to cost more than Rs. 20 erores on which appreciable progress has been made 1605 890 715 484
2 major projects costing between Rs. 5 crores to Rs. 20 crores on which appreciable progress has been made 280 176 104 98
3 other major projects on which appreciable progress has not been made so far 350 12 338 86
4 medium schemes 225 122 103 103
5 Total 2460 1200 1260 771

As indicated by the states up to 1-3-1970.

Provision has been made in the Fourth Plan for all the major schemes on which appreciable progress has been made and for all the medium schemes. An outlay of Rs. 685 crores has been provided for this purpose. The spillover from these schemes into the Fifth Plan will be of the order of Rs. 237 crores. All the medium schemes will be completed in the Fourth Plan period. The major schemes on which substantial expenditure has already been incurred, will in many instances be completed or otherwise come to a stage when benefits will start accuring. The other major schemes with an outlay of Rs. 86 crores will reach various stages of construction and partial benefits will start accruing from some of them in the first year of the Fifth Plan. It is proposed to start new schemes, estimated to cost about Rs. 750 crores, mostly in the latter part of the Fourth Plan. An outlay of Rs. 140 crores is provided for them in the Fourth Plan. More than one-third of this will be for medium schemes and the rest for major and ;hemes. The medium schemes would be located mostly in scarcity and drought affected areas. Supplemental irrigation schemes will be encouraged, wherever the existing intensity 'of irrigation is low or the water allowance and the frequency of watering are inadequate for the implementation of modern agricultural practices. the total outlay on irrigation is :

Table- 6 Outlay on Major and Medium schemes

Sl. No. item outlay (Rs. crores)
(0) (1) (2)
1 continuing schemes 771.4
2 new schemes 140.4
3 investigations and research in the states and union territories 26.5
4 research and design schemes of the central sector 15.5
5 Total 953.8

The State-wise details are given in Annexure I.

11.16. Benefits.—During the Fourth Plan, about 4.8 million hectares irrigation potential would be created of which 4.7 million hectares would be from the continuing schemes and 0.1 million hectares from new schemes. Utilisation is expected to be about 3.9 million hectares. Statevvise details are given in Annexure II.

11.17. River Basin Plans.—Comprehensive river basin planning, which takes due account of economic efficiency, will be given increased attention. For integrated development of water and land resources, master plans have to be prepared for long-term development of hri-gation in each river basin, including inter-State rivers. In prepaiing these plans, the optimum economical development of a liver basin has to be kept in view, covering various aspects such as irrigation, flood control, navigation and soil conservation. The development of groundwater resources would also need to be co-ordinated. Such development would often run across State boundaries. Wolks would need to be executed in a State than the one in which the benefit will accrue. Preparation of a few basin-wise plans will be taken up in the Fourth Plan so that future schemes dovetail into these plans. Provision for this work has been made in the Central sector.

11.18. Research.—Research in irrigation, hydraulics, soil mechanics and construction materials is being conducted in the Central Water and Power Research Station at Poona, Central Soil Mechanics and Concrete Research Station at Delhi and nineteen other research stations in States. These stations are engagtd in research on applied engineering as well as fundamental research. The research programmes are coordinated by the Central Board of Irrigation and Power. With the large programmes of development now being undertaken, the activities of these organisations will be broadened in the Fourth Plan.

11.19. Proposals for Minor Schemes.—The financial ceiling for individual minor irrigation v/orks hitherto in vogue was Rs. 15 lakhs. It has been decided to increase this ceiling to Rs. 25 lahhs in the plains and Rs. 30 lakhs in hill areas with effect from April 1, 1970. The investments on minor irrigation scheme's aie derived from the public sector, the financing institutions and private resources. The public sector programmes are intended for State surface water schemes including river pumping projects. State tubewells, loans and subsidies to small farmers, purchase of equipment and contribution towards the purchase of debentures of the Land Deveolopment Banks. The outlays on minor irrigation in the Agriculture sector are :

Table 7 : Outlay for Minor Irrigation

Sl. No. 1 outlay (Rs. crores)
(0) (1) (2)
1 states 501.5
2 union territories 6.2
3 centre 8.0
4 Total 515.7

The major portion of the public sector outlay is expected to be spent on community works constructed by State Governments, panchayati raj institutions or other authorities. Such community works consist mostly of tanks, diversion projects. State tubewells and river pumping projects and often serve the important purpose of providing irrigation facilities to small farmers who are not otherwise able to provide themselves with irrigation facilities. Loans and subsidies from the public sector outlay are proposed to be restricted to small farmers. Moreover, taccavi is proposed to be restricted to areas in which institutional financing is not yet adequately developed. The total public sector outlay on taccavi loans and subsidy is expected to be below Rs. 68 crores. The State-wise outlays are shown in Annexure III. Investment on minor irrigation works financed by the institutional sector, including commercial banks, is estimated at about Rs. 650 crores (not after deducting Plan sector contribution towards debentures) while investment by cultivators from their own resources is estimated to be about Rs. 300 crores.

11.20. The outlay on rural electrification with special emphasis on energising pumpsets and tubewells provided under public sector is indicated below :

Table 8 : Outlay on Rural Electrification

Sl. No. outlay (Rs. crores)
(0) (1) (2)
1 states 285.15
2 union territories 9.54
3 centre 150.00
4 Total 444.69

A Rural Electrification Corporation with a plan outlay of Rs. 150 crores has been set up in the public sector. This institution will provide loans to the State Electricity Boards for energising irrigation pumpsets and generally promote the electrification of rural areas, on a project basis with the due regard to consideration of economic viability. Special note will be taken of the needs of the less advanced areas. The Corporation will also provide loans to a number of Rural Electric Coopera-ratives which will be set up during the Plan period. Additional funds for rural electrification are expected from financing institutions, such as the Agricultural Refinance Corporation, Land Development Banks and commercial banks. It is estimated that 1.25 million pumpsets and tubewells in all will be energised during the Plan period.

11.21. Benefits.—The total benefits from minor iirigation on the basis ol the investment envisaged from public, institutional and private sectois aic expected during Fourth Plan to be as follows:

Table 9 : Benefits from Minor Irrigation

Sl. No.   be nefits (million hectares)
(.0) (1) (2)
1 new irrigation added 4.8
2 depreciation on existing works2 1.6
3 net new irrigated area 3.2
4 benefits due to improvement of irrigation supplies 2.25
5 benefits due to drainage and embankments 0.15

Please see para 11.9.

11.22. Irrigation Statistics.—For the proper assessment of hen and fit flowing from irrigation schemes, it is necessary to coilecUZgulaily accurate irrigation statistics of the area under major, medium ai:d minoi irrigation schems? including the pioduction or yield per hectare nom the iirigated areas separately. At present, irrigation statistics are drawn from two sources: one is the land utilisation statistic?, compiled annually by the State Land Records and Revenue authorities; the other source i., the periodical progress reports furnished by the State Governments on the irrigation schemes taken up under the Plan. The discrepancies which often exist between the two sets of figures need to be eliminated by proper verification at the State level.

11.23. Water Resources.— panel on Water Resources has been set up which will advise, in the light of scientific and technological considerations, on long-term planning of water lesources including their assessment, exploitation and conseivation. It will recommend the lines of research and investigation necessary for the integrated use of surface and ground water resources. It will also consider other important aspects, such as water-logging and salinity. As a step towards long-term planning, it will indicate the priorities to be followed in the survey and exploitation of water resources, both suiface and under ground. In its interim report the Panel has stressed the need to coordinate the work of coikclion of data in respect of surface and ground watei on the part of the various state departments and the Central Ministries. Such data would help in projecting the demands ofths various sectors such as agriculture, industry and domestic water supply, both in urban ana rural areas and indicate how be?t the available resources of water could be utilised for various purposes, thus fitting into a water plan. :

11.24. An Irrigation Commission has been set up with the following tcims of reference :

  1. to review Hie development of irrigation since 1903, when the last Irrigation Commission submitted its recommendations, and report on the contribution made by irrigation to increasing the productivity of land and in providing insurance against the vagaries of rainfall;
  2. to examine in detail the irrigation facilities available in chronically drought affected and food deficit areas and suggest essential and minimum irrigation works to be undertaken promptly in such areas;
  3. to draw up a broad outline of development of irrigation of all types for achieving self-sufficiency in cereals and for maximising the production of other crops and to make a broad assessment of the funds required for the purpose;
  4. to examine the adequacy of water supply in major irrigation projects;
  5. to examine the administrative and organisational set-up for the planning, execution and operation of irrigation works, particularly with a view to the speedy completion of projects and reduction of their gestation period.
  6. to suggest criteria for sanctioning of irrigation projects; and
  7. to examine any other matter incidental or related to the development of irrigation in the country and make suitable recommendations.

The Commission has been requested to report by March 1971.

11.25. Water Management.—For the optimum utilisation and conservation of water resources, as also for intensifying agricultural productivity, it has been recognised that proper distribution and management of water on the field is essential through measures such as land shaping, construction of field channels and provision of adequate drainage. Attention is being given to studies and investigations designed to improve the efficiency of water management, public and private, with due regard to all the relevant factors such as a soil conditions, plant water relationship, farm practices and farm management. It is proposed to study the effect of intensity of irrigation on the socio-economic conditions of a region and to formulate proposals so that the benefits go to the largest section of the population while keeping in view the aspect of higher production. Three water management projects have been started in the Central sector. They are situated in Bellary district in the Tungabhadra project area of Mysore, in Patiala distiict in the Bhakra project command in Punjab and in the Donrighat Pumped Canal command in Azamgarh district in Uttar Pradcsh. These projects are expected to throw light on the problems connected with efficient water management and to serve as training ground for technical personnel and farmers. Three more pilot projects of a similar nature are proposed to be taken up in the Fourth Plan period.

11.26. Ground water Investigations.—If the States are to take full advantage of the opportunities offered during the Fourth Plan for groundwater development, they have to set up adequate organisations for survey and exploration. Thus, geo-hydrological sepecialists have to be appointed and equipped for the task of carrying out a rapid assessment ofgioundwater resources and giving expert advice to the farmer with regard to the type of well he should install. The engineering problems involved will similarly have to be dealt with by specialists in that line and arrangements will have to be made for the supervision of work done by public organisa ions and contractois. While a few States have made a beginning towards the creation of adequate groundwater organisations, a great deal of work remain;, to be done and needs to be taken up on a pliority basis. For example, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Haryana, Maharashtra, Mysore, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu hevc set up geo-hydrological organisations of their own. The activities of these State Geo-hydrological Units should progressively include : (a) undertaking test drilling (limited to shallow depths) in the areas cleared by the Geological Survey of India (GS1); (b) preparing additional geo-hydrological features in the base maps prepared by the G.S.I.; (c) undertaking rapid assessment surveys adopting empirical approach for providing day to day active support to the development programme in hand and proposed; and (d) undeitaking compiehensive regional studies for ground water assessment in collaboiation with the Exploratory Tubewells Organisation (ETO) and GSI. Another important (unction of thtse units would be to disseminate geo-hydrological information in the form of map.,, guidelines or pamphlets indicating design and spacing 01 suitable type of well for use by the local agercies concerned with sro!.indwatei development and to provide consultancy service to farmers in such matters as pin-pointing sites for well, design of wells and the type and size of water lift appliances to be installed. At the Central level, responsibility for prospecting foi water and for the preparation of basal geo-hydrological maps without which detailed studies cannot be undertaken by State Governments must be regarded as the responsibility of the Geological Survey of India. During the Fourth Plan, the groundwater wing of the Geological Survey of India will have to orient its programme towards covering the priority areas proposed lor development by the State Governments. ETO in the Department of Agriculture carries out deep exploratory drilling in non-hard-rock areas. This organisation has also taken up quantitative assessmnt of groundwater resources in a few areas in Rajasthan. It has to coordinate its activities with those of the GSI. Research and studies are required in matters such as the hydrology of hard rock areas and impiovement in the designs of wells and tubewells. The problem of saline infestation in certain parts of the country particularly the coastal aras, also needs to be investigated and remedied before irreversible damage i? done by indiscriminate pumping. The methods of artificial recharge of groundwater, specially in areas where water is scarce is another important item where study and research are necessary with a view to formulating the necessary programmes.

11.27. Revenues.—The direct revenues from major and medium irrigation projects are water rates, irrigation cess and betterment levy. These charges are collected by State Governments from users. A rate is charged for irrigation water and varies with the crop grown and the area irrigated. These rates are different: in different states and vary widely. The irrigation systems are at present working at a loss in all States, mostly because of interest charges on investments on major projects under construction with long gestation periods and also to some extent on account of increased costs of maintenance and operation. The current annual loss is of the order of Rs. 80 crorcs (Annexure IV). Irrigation facilities are available only to the people in the areas commanded by the system. It is appropriate that the beneficiaries should pay for them and not impose a burden on the rest of the community. While prices of agricultural produce have increased and cultivators from the irrigated land have been deriving higher profits, there has not been a commensurate increase in water rates. The Nijalingappa Committee, which was set up to suggest ways and means of improving financial returns from irrigation projects said in 1965 : "Water rates should be on the basis of a suitable percentage of the additional net benefit to the farmer from an irrigated crop where with the available data, this can be worked out. These rates may be fixed at 25% to -10% of the additional net benefit keeping in view factors like rainfall, water requirements, yield and value of crop. Where it is not feasible to work out the additional net benefits, water rates may be fixed, to start with, a? a suitable percentage of gross income to the farmer from the irrigated crop. Rates in this case may be 5 to 12 per cent of the gross income and should be worked up to. Water rates should be reviewed every 5 years. Required data regarding additional net benefit should be continuously collected for this purpose". Although some States have inflated steps to implement the recommendations of the Committee, then; is scope for increasing water rates progressively and levying or increasing irrigation cess with a view to effecting a substantial reduction in the losses and making adequate provision for the proper maintenance of irrigation works.

11.28. The irrigation charges for minor irrigation schemes under the public sector are levied by State Governments, Zila Parishads and Panchayats on the basis of the area of the crop irrigated. In some lift irrigation schemes and tubewells, water rates are also charged on a volume trie basis. The present rates seldom cover the operation and depreciation charges. State Governments should give serious consideration to upward revision of the rates so that they cover at least the maintenance, operation and depreciation charges and also yield some interest on capital. For making full use of the facilities provided by Government, a two-part tariff should be introduced, especially is; iift irrigation schemes operated by electric and diesel pumps. The two-part tariff may comprise of a fixed barge on the basis of area together with an additional charge based on the quantity of water used or the number of waterings given. The State Electricity Boards are incurring substantial losses on the Rural Electrificat tion Programme on account of long distribution lines with sparse load, large seasonal fluctuations in consumption, and low tariff rates for agricultural consumption. The development of industrial loads in rural areas will be beneficial to the overall economy of the system. The Electricity Boards may also consider a suitable increase in the exisdng tariff rates. A two-part tariff, comprising a fixed charge on the basis of horse power and another charge based on the energy consumed can be devised. This would encourage intensive working of thi pumpsets selling of water to adjoining farmers and better utilisation of the tubewell potential.

Flood control

11.29. The total area liable to floods that can be reasonably protected is 16 million hectares. The average annual area affected by floods during 1953 to 1968 was six million hectares of which the area under crop was about two million hectares. Flood problems are serious in certain States like Assam, Bihar, U.P. and West Bengal. Since the initiation of the national programme of flood control in 1954, some progress has been made in protecting areas from floods and drainage congestion. The overall progress made until theeiidofthel968-69 was:

  1. construction of 6900 km. of new embankments;
  2. 9200 km. of drainage channels;
  3. 178 town protection schemes; and
  4. raising of over 4582 villages above flood level.

In addition, embankments have been raised and strengthened in many instances. As a result, nearly 5.9 million hectares of land, usually subjected to flood damage, have been afforded reasonable protection at tb; beginning of the Fourth Plan. Flood coatrol, drainage and anti-waterlogging works are closely related to irrigation. Schemes have, therefore, to be formulated in an integrated manner so that measures taken in one place do not accentuate the problem in a neighbouring area. Waterlogging has increased in recen: years, particularly in Punjab and Haryana and extensive anti-waterlogging measures have been taken. These will be continued. It is proposed to lay greater emphasis on the setting up of a scientific flood forecasting system, so that timely warnings may reduce loss of life and damage. A progiamme to survey more precisely the areas prone to flooding, drainage congestion and water-logging will be taken up. For the flood management of the Brahmaputra, there will be dredging ia selected reaches on an experimental basis to reduce damage to the embankments. An outlay of Rs. 133 crore;, has been provided for flood contiol, drainage, anti-wateilogging and anti-sea erosion. The State-wise outlays are shown in Annexure V. An outlay of Rs. 50 crores is on contnuing schemes. The programme is expected to give reasonable protection to an additional 1.5 million hectares through the construction of 1200 Km. of embankments, 2500 km. of drainage channel and 40 town protection schemes.

11.30. Soil Conservation.—Large sums of money are being invested in increasing storage reservoirs for irrigation and power generation. It is important that the life of these reservoirs is not shortened by excessive flows of silt and sediment from the catchment areas. The programme of soil conservation was executed in 13 river valley catchments in the Third Plan. Up to the end of 1968-69, 7100 sq. km. were treated, involving an outlay of Rs. 23 crores. In addition, 164 silt observation posts have been established in sub-catchments, aerial photographs for 12 project catchments have been taken, and air-photo interpretation for 1,34,300 sq. km. has been completed. All the States except West Bengal, Jammu and Kashmir and Bihar have enacted legislation on soil and water conservation. It is proposed to start work on 8 new projects and extend the work on existing projects to cover an area of 5000 sq. km. in the Fourth Plan, with an outlay of about Rs. 27 crores in the agricultural sector.

11.31. The main outlays are summarised below :

Table 10 : Outlay on Irrigation and Flood Control (Rs. crores)

Sl.No. irrigation (major and medium) irrga-tion (minor) rural electrification flood control
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1 states 934.7 501.5 285.2 115.6
2 union territories 3.6 6.2 9.5 9.1
3 centre 15.5 8.0 150.0 8.0
4 Total 953.8 515.7 444.7 132.7

ANNEXURE I Stale- wise Outlays for Major andl Medium Irrigation Programme (Rs. crores)

Sl. No.   continuing schemes new schemes investigation research and miscellaneous items total
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1 States 771.25 137.42 26.08 934.75
2 Andhra Pradesh 74.83   1.17 76.00
3 Assam 3.84 3.53 0.30 7.67
4 Bihar 97.00 13.15 0.85 111.00
5 Gujarat 78,31 21.79 2.90 103.00
6 Haryana 19.03 10.64 0.26 29.90
7 Jammu and Kashmir 0.65 4.69 0,32 5.66
8 Kerala 26.25   0.50 26.75
9 Madhya Pradesh 56.56 21.50 5.00 83.06
10 Maharashtra 118.53 13.72 10.00 142.25
11 Mysore 59.00 15.25 1.00 75.25
12 Nagaland        
13 Orissa 20.17 3.78 1.05 25.00
14 Punjab 12.58 2.87 0.43 15.88
15 Rajasthan 81.11 7.42 0.20 88.73
16 Tamil Nadu 20.31 15.24 0,05 35.60
17 Uttar Pradesh 85.12 3.30 1.58 90.00
18 West Bengal 17.96 0.54 0.50 19.00
19 Union Territories 0.11 3.00 0.45 3.56
20 Goa , Daman and Diu   2.70 0.30 3.00
21 Manipur     0.10 0.10
22 Pondicherry 0.11 0.30 0.05 0,46
23 Tripura        
24 Central Schemes     15.50 15.50
25 Total (1+19+24) 771.36 140.42 42.03 953.81

ANNEXURE II Benefits from Major and Medium Irrigation Schemes ('000 hectares gross)

Sl. No. State ultimate irrigation potential irrigation from pre-plan schemes benefits to end of 1968-69 from plan schemes pot. to end of 1968-69i

ncluding preplan (col. 3+4)

percentage of pot. to end of r J968-69 w.r.t. ultimate irrigation pot. estimates of
benefits during
(IV plan
pot. to end of 1973-74 including preplan (col. 6+8) percenta-age of pot. to end of 1973-74 w.r.t. ultimate irrigation pot.
pot. uitilisation pot. utilisation
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)
1 Andhra Pradesh 64801 1676 751 572 2427 37.5 629 413 3056 47.2
2 Assam 9702 65 18 14 83 8.6 52 33 135 13.9
3 Bihar 42909 590 1250 770 1840 42.9 1050 1020 2890 67.3
4 Gujarat 21503 33 450 310 483 22.4 350 350 833 38.7
5 Haryana 5 5 920 900 920 8 150 100 1070 5
6 Jammu and Kashmir 100* 43 20 18 63 63.0 16 10 79 79.0
7 Kerala 630 158 179 179 337 53.5 119 111 456 72.3
8 Madhya Pradesh 56303 513 430 172 943 16.7 360 313 1303 23.1
9 Maharashtra 2350" 279 350 200 629 26.7 380 310 1U09 42.9
10 Mysore 17803 308 490 400 798 44.8 95 125 893 50.1
11 Nagaland N.A.
12 Orissa 24303 455 635 600 1090 44.9 260 190 1350 55.5
13 Punjab 414011 1656" 685 681 2341 78.7 25 9 2366 83.0
14 Rajasthan 3150s 320 700 600 1020 32.4 290 210 1310 41.6
15 Tamil Nadu 1560* 1141 310 290 1451 93.1 70 70 1521 97.5
16 Uttar Pradesh 76103 1991 1050 970 3041 40.0 680 450 3721 48.9
17 West Bengal 23102 440 660 610 1100 47.6 240 180 1340 58.0
18 Total 45580 9668 8898 7286 18566 40.7 4766 3894 23332 51.2

•State Government. "C.W. and P.C.
•Relevant reports on Techno-Economic Survey—National Council of Applied Economic Research.
•On the basis of figures furnished by the C.W. and P.C. with marginal adjustments in the Planning Commission. "Included in Punjab.
•Haryana's figures included.

ANNEXURE-III State-wise Outlays for Minor Irrigation Programmes

Sl. No. State outlay for fourth plan (Rs. crores)
(0) (1) (2)
1 states 501.53
2 Andhra Pradesh 30.00
3 Assam 15.15
4 Bihar 54.00
5 Gujarat 30.22
6 Harayana 9.63
7 Jammu and Kashmir 7.64
8 Kerala 10.00
9 Madhya Pradesh 37.90
10 Maharashtra 70.00
11 Mysore 32.00
12 Nagaland 0.85
13 Orissa 12.50
14 Punjab 23.20
15 Rajasthan 13.00
16 Tamil Nadu 32.70
17 Uttar Pradesh 96.00
18 West Bengal 26.74
19 union territories 6.19
20 central schemes 8.00
21 Total (I+J9+20) 515.72

ANNEXURE- IV Estimates a Losses in 1968-69 (Accounts) oh Commercial Irrigation Works and Irrigation Portions of Multi-purpose River Valley Project (Rs. crores)

Sl. No state irrigation (commercial)1

multi-purpose river valley projects

gross receipts working expenses interest charges net receipts gross receipts working expenses interest charges net receipts
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9)
1 Andhra Pradesh 8.99* 1.55 6.27 1.17     8.49 (-) 8.49
2 Assam9
3 Bihar 2.28 3.15 5 (-)0.87 0.59 1.92 2.70 (-) 4.03
4 Gujarat 0.89 1.38 4.36 (-)4.85 0.02 2.59 (-) 2.61
5 Harayana 2.36 1.77 1.93 (-)1.34 3.43 1.15 2.41 (-) 0.13
6 Jammu and Kashmir 0.06 0.21 0.18 (-)0.33 „.
7 Kerala 0.09 0.22 1.28 (-)1.41      
8 Madhya Pradesh3          
9 Maharashtra 2.02 1.69 8.42 (-)8.09
10 Mysore 1.09 1.24 7.44 C-)7.59
11 Nagaland' . - -— -—
12 Orissa 0.62 0.69 3.91 (~)3.98 0.35 1.31 4.77 (-) 5.73
13 Punjab 3.60 2.55 3.25 (-)2.20 1.24 1.15 2.71 (-) 2.62
14 Rajasthan 0.85 0.48 3.58 (-)3.21 0.84 1.04 2.71 (-) 2.91
15 Tamil Nadu 1.93 1.73 5.14 (-)4.94   -
16 Uttar Pradesh 17.40 25.63 3 (~)8.23 2.75 (-) 2.75
17 West Bengal 0.21 0.53 0.44 (-)0.76 0.55 1.18 2.12 (-) 2-75
18 Total 42.39 42.83 46.20 (—)46.63 7.00 7.77 31.23 (-) 32.02

'Losses relate to commercial irrigation works i.e. works for which capital accounts are kept. "Losses relate mainly to irrigation portion of the multi-purpose river valley projects, 'No capital accounts are kept in respect of irrigation works in these States. includes portion of land revenue 'attributable to irrigation'. "Interest charges included under working expenses.

State-wise Outlays/or Flood Control, Drainage, Anti-Waterlogging and Anti-Sea Erosion Programme (Rs. crores)

Sl.No. state/union territory outlay for fourth plan
(0) 1 (2)
1 states 115.64
2 Andhra Pradesh 10.00
3 Assam 30.54
4 Bihar 10.00
5 Gujarat 7.00
6 Haryana 9.00
7 Jammii and Kashmir 6.25
8 Kerala 6.53
9 Madhya Pradesh 0.50
10 Maharashtra 2.00
11 Mysore 1.50
12 Nagaland  
13 Orissa 2.00
14 Punjab 11.28
15 Rajasthan 2.89
16 Tamil Nadu 2.25
17 Uttar Pradesh 8.00
18 West Bengal 5.90
19 union territories 9.12
20 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 0.04
21 Delhi 6.00
22 Goa, Daman and Diu 0.20
23 Himachal Pradesh 0.40
24 Manipur 1.00
25 Pondicherry 0.48
26 Tripura 1.00
27 central schemes 8.00
28 Total (J+J9+27) 132.76
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