5th Five Year Plan
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Foreword || A Review of the Economic Situation || The Perspective || Rate and Pattern of Growth || Financial Resources || Plan Outlays and Programmes of Development || Resolution of the National Development Council on Power and Irrigation Systems || Resolution of the National Development Council on the Fifth Five Year Plan || Annexures

Chapter-5:
PLAN OUTLAYS AND PROGRAMMES OF DEVELOPMEN

I. Plan Outlays

The Draft Fifth Five Year Plan envisaged an outlay of Rs. 37250 crores in the public sector. The revised Plan outlay is now estimated at Rs 39303 crores excluding provision for inventories.

Public Sector Outlays

5.2. Not only has the Total Plan Outlay been increased from Rs 37250 crores to Rs 39303 crores but the outlay for the next two years has been reckoned at Rs 19902 crores as against the estimate for the first three years of the Plan which aggregate to Rs 19401 crores.

5.3. The break down of the revised outlay under major heads of development is as follows :

Fifth Five Year Plan Outlay-1974-79
(Rs. crores)

draft fifth plan

revised fifth plan
1974-77 1977-79 1974-79
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4)
1. agriculture and allied programmes 4935.00 2130.19 2513.40 4643.59
2. irrigation and flood control 2681.00 1651.50 1788.68 3440.18
3. power 6190.00 3513.05 3780.85 7293.90
4. industry and mining 9029.00 5205.35 4995.25 10200.60
5. transport and communications 7115.00 3552.67 3328.76 6881.43
6. education 1726.00 587,77 696.52 1284.29
7. social and community services (including economic and general services but excluding education) 5074.00 2322.42 2444.35 4766.77
8. hill and tribal areas and NEC schemes 500.00 177.50 272.50 450.00
9. sectoral distribution not yet reported. 260.44 66.29 326.73
10 Total 37250.00 79400.89 79856.60 39287.491

1 Does not include an amount of Rs- 16 crores for which sectoral break-up is not worked out.
2 Sectoral break-up does not include an amount of Rs. 203 crores added subsequently.

The outlays for the remaining years of the Plan are based on the following broad considerations : -

  1. The plan priorities of the Draft Fifth Plan have been kept unchanged;
  2. the outlays for on-going projects/schemes have been determined on the basis of present and future demand, past performance, current completion schedules and escalation in costs ;
  3. provisions have been made for new starts, including those which have long gestation periods, keeping in view the demand pattern for 1981-82 and in some cases 1983-84 ; and
  4. an attempt has been made to see that the investments are not only fruitful but that they also ensure adequate return. In agricultural production, power, irrigation and education sectors targets were suggested keeping in view the national targets, natural resources of States and their present state of preparedness.

5.4. There is substantial step-up in the outlays on irrigation and flood control, power and industry and minerals. In agriculture, education and social services sectors though the revised outlays for the Fifth Plan as a whole are smaller, the outlays for the last two years of the Plan are higher than the outlays for the first three years.

20-Point Economic Programme

5.5. The 20-Point Economic Programme was announced by the Prime Minister on 1st July, 1975. The various constituents of the 20-Point Economic Programme, especially those which require financial investment, have been identified. Priority has been accorded to the implementation of the schemes falling under this programme. The outlays of the Centre, States and Union Territories for the remaining two years of the plan—1977-79 and the Fifth Plan are indicated below :

(Rs. crores)

1975-76 anticipated 1976-77 approved outlay 1977-79 proposed outlay total
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4)
centre 119.01 163.71 757.06 1039.78
states and U.Ts. 1850.68 2173.97 5334.67 9359.32
Total 1969.69 2337.68 6091.73 10399.10

Annexures 21 and 22 indicate the proposed outlays for 1 977-79 in respect of different constituents of the 20-Point Economic Programme.

Overall Outlay

5.6. The distribution of the outlays by sectors, by Ministries, by States and by Union Territories is shown in Annexures 17-20, Briefly, the revised Plan outlays are as follows :

(Rs. crores)

1. central sector 19954,10
2. states 18265.08
3. union territories 634.06
4. hill and tribal areas 450.00
Total 39303.24

2. Agriculture and Irrigation

5.7. Agriculture Production: The methodology followed in arriving at the projections of foodgrains, important commercial crops, irrigated areas and other physical programmes has been explained in the chapter on the Rate and Pattern of Growth. These estimates relate to average weather conditions in a given year. However, in order to allow for variations in the effect of weather, provisions have been made in individual state plans on a slightly higher scale so that the total production is not materially lowered even if some part of the country is affected. If these outlays are utilised with a fair degree of efficiency and if weather conditions are favourable in all the states, the total production would naturally be much higher and could be of the order shown in the table below.

(mt-million tonnas, mh-million hectares, mb-million bales )

item 1973-74 level maximum production estimates
(0) (1) (2)
foodgrains (mt) 104.7 132.9
oil seeds (mt)-five major 8.9 12.6
sugar cane (mt) 140.8 173.5
cotton ( mb -170 kg) 6.3 9.0
jute and mesta (mb -180 kg) 7.7 7.7
high-yielding varieties (mh) 25.8 40.0
fertilizers 2.8 5.0
consumption (mt)
minor irrigation (mh) 23.1 31.6

5.8. The expenditure on Agriculture and allied programmes during 1974-77 is likely to be about Rs. 2 I 30 crores. The outlays proposed for the last two years of the Plan period are of the order of Rs. 251 3 crores. The Sectorwise outlays are shown in Annexure 23 and the State-wise allocations are given in Annexure 24.

5.9. Performance of the important programmes, like DPAP, minor irrigation, production and distribution of high-yielding varieties of seed and distribution of fertilisers have been specifically examined and necessary provision has been made. The outlays for reclamation of alkline, saline and acidic soils and plant protection programmes have been suitably enhanced. Emphasis has also been placed on developing organic sources of manure and higher outlays provided for setting up biogas plants. Adequate provision has also been made for accelerating the minikit seed programme and strengthening of the extension services. Provision has also been made for augmenting storage capacity in the public sector.

Irrigation

5.10. The total irrigation potential likely to be created during the Fifth Plan period is placed at 13-1 million hectares ; 5-8 million under 'major and medium' and 7'3 million under'minor'. Allowing for certain adjustments the additional potential should be of an order higher than 11 million hectares.

Major and Medium Irrigation

5.11. During the first three years of the Fifth Plan the expenniture on major and medium irrigation projects is likely to be Rs. 1474 crores. For the remaining two years of the Plan, an outlay of Rs. 1 621 crores is indicated keeping in view the progress achieved on each project, new completion schedules, development of additional command and escalation in costs. Where work could be accelerated, higher, outlays have been provided for projects such as Nagariuna-sagar, Sarda Sahayak, Rajasthan Canal, Malaprabha and Kadana, Commitments to international agencies like the World Bank in respect of certain projects and obligation of States to provide matching funds in respect of inter-State projects have been kept in mind.

5.12. An Outlay of Rs. 1013 crores has been provided for new starts during the Plan period. In selecting new projects, priority was accorded to those located in drought prone areas. On the basis of the data furnished by the States and the discussions held recently, an additional potential of 5-8 million hectares is expected to be acnieved during the Fifth Plan period. Details indicating the outlays and benefits State-wise are given in Annexures 25 and 26.

5.13. Planning Commission has been laying great emphasis on modernisation of certain important irrigation schemes urgently, particularly those completed earlier to the Plan periods. Provision has been made for some schemes like Godavari Barrage, Tajewala and Okhia Barrages and Bhimgoda headworks.

Minor Irrigation

5.14. According to the outlays available to the states for the first three years, a maximum potential of nearly 3'4 million hectares is likely to be created during the first three years of the Plan. The provision made in the following two years of the Plan almost equals the provision in the first three years. As a number of the projects are nearing completion, it is expected that an additional 3-9 million hectares will be brought under irrigation during the next two years.

Soil and Water Conservation

5.1 5. The programme for treatment of area in river valley catchment of major reservoirs and other soil and water conservation programme made a late start. A considerable step-up in outlays for implementation of these programmes has been made for the remaining two years'of the Fifth Plan. In some of the States, soil and water conservation programmes have also been taken up with institutional credit support and the targets of physical performance are likely to be achieved.

Area Development

5.16. This important programme for optimising the use of irrigation water and utilisation of the potential created from selected commands of major irrigation works also took time to make a start. Now the Command Area Development Authorities have been set up and other infrastructure facilities developed. Therefore, the provision in the Central sector would be almost 22 per cent higher for the remaining two years as compared to the outlays for the first tnree years. The provisions in the respective states adequately match the provision made in the Central sector.

Investment in Agricultural Financial Institutions

5.17. More and more institutional finance is being extended to the development programme for rural areas which leads to higher physical achievements with less public sector outlays. Accordingly, for providing support to Agricultural Refinance and Development Corporation, adequate budgetary provision has * been made in the Central Sector, which is almost 55 per cent higher than the outlay in the draft Fifth Plan. In the State, sector, provisions have also been made for investment in agricultural financial institutions which are higher by about 22 per cent. The provision made for the remaining two years in some of the States especially in the eastern region for strengthening of cooperative structure and development of loaning programmes by the Land Development Banks is almost 62% higher than the outlays available for the first three years. The total investment outlay is being raised to Rs. 129 crores. It is to be noted that the major portion of it will go to minor irrigation sector. This should generate sizeable investment and strengthen the operational capability of the Central/State Ground Water Boards.

Forestry

5.18. Taking note of the fact that forestry development has assumed a significant dimension as a source of timber and fuel and for the maintenance of the natural ecological system, special programmes for social forestry and economic plantations have been given high priority. Accordingly, for the remaining two years of the plan, the provision made is almost double the outlays provided for in the first three years of the Plan. Adequate provision has also been made for 'project Tiger' and for the development of National Parks and for strengthening the reserch programme in the forestry sector.

Animal Husbandry and Dairy Farming

5.19. There had been some delay in giving a start to the special livestock development programmes through small and marginal farmers and agricultural labourers. By and large the targets under production oriented projects such as intensive cattle development projects, intensive poultry production-cum-marketing centres, sheep and wool extension centres and fluid milk plants and milk product factories are expected to be achieved in full. There are 85 subsidised projects for cross-breed calf rearing, 57 poultry production projects, 45 piggery production projects and 38 sheep production projects through small and marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in 148 districts. Intergrated milk production-cum-marketing projects would be implemented in the States of Meghalaya, Assam, Sikkim, Himachal Pradesh, J and K, Orissa and Kerala as a second phase of the 'Operation Flood' project. Emphasis will continue to be laid on cross-breeding in cattle through establishment of exotic cattle breeding farms and intensive artificial insemination measures. Particular emphasis will be laid on scientific poultry breeding programme. Programmes for the control of rinderpest and foot and mouth disease would be continued.

Fisheries

5.20. There has been some delay in the start of a few projects but the targets for mechanisation of boats, production of fish seed and development of fishing harbours are expected to be achieved in full A special Trawler Development Fund will be created in order to helo, in particular, smaller entrepreneurs and cooperatives to purchase and operate trawlers for marine fishries. Fish Farmers Development Agencies would be started in the states for augmenting inland fish production and exploitation of water bodies in rural areas.

5.21. The UNDP assisted palagic fishery project would be continued for exploration and exploitation of fishery resources and this scheme would be extended to cover both the West and South East coasts. A survey of the North West coast would be conducted. An intergrated fishery development project around two fishing harbours at Veraval and Mangrol in Gujarat would be taken up with world Bank assistance. A research vessel will be provided to the Central Marine Fishries Research Institute.

Research and Education

5.22. In spite of the fact that the trend of expenditure during the first three years has been low on account of ban on recruitment of staff, the research priorities in different fields of crop production and animal husbandry have been maintained to yield new innovations in developing farm level technology. The coordinated research programmes have been suitably strengthened with the active participation of the Agricultural Universities in different States. A new research complex has been established in the north-eastern region. New institutes have also been established for strengthening cotton research and for developing research programmes on farm tools, equipment and machinery. Provisions have been made for projects with collaboration of agencies of United Nations. The Educational programmes have been further strengthened by setting up new Agricultural Universities which now number 21 covering 1 6 States.

Cooperation

5.23. Taking note of the desirability of strengthening the cooperative structure, provision has been sufficiently enhanced for Agricultural Stabilisation Fund, rehabilitation of weak Central Cooperative Banks and assistance to cooperative credit institutions in developing States. Thus the revised outlay for 1977-79 is almost 60 per cent higher than the outlays for the first three years of the Fifth Plan. Similarly, adequate provisions have been made in the State sector to provide for strengthening of cooperative structure by organising Farmers Service Societies-and LAMPS in the tribal areas. Provisions have also been made for increasing the loaning programmes for m'nor irrigation, land development and supply of inputs.

Flood Control

5.24. The anticipated expenditure in the first three, years is likely to be of the order of Rs. 177-69 crores. For the next two years (1 977-79). an outlay of Rs. 167.59 crores has been indicated (Annexure 27).

5.25. Some of the .important schemes are the Patna City Protecton Works, flood protection works in North-Bihar and U.P., flood control and drainage works in Jammu and Kashmir, drainage works in Punjab, improvement of lower Damodar system in West Bengal and flood protection works in North Bengal. The provision also covers the flood control works in the Brahmputra valley for which provision has been rr.ade in the Central sector.

5.26. The Centre is also assisting in sharing the cost of flood control component of the Rengali dam in Orissa and anti-sea erosion works in Kerala. It also meets the cost of the flood forecasting system that has been set up in the Department of Irrigation.

3. Power

5.27. In the Fourth Plan an additional 4280 MW of generating capacity was added, taking the installed capacity to 18456 MW. In the first two years of the Fifth Plan 3524 MW were added, and with the requisite efforts on the part of the project authorities, it might be possible to add 2387 MW capacity during 1976-77. In the first three years, the outlay on generation projects would be about Rs. 2145 crores. It is now expected that a total of about 12500 MW of generating capacity would be added during the Fifth Plan. Out of the projects which are currently under implementation, generating capacity of about 6000 MW would be still under construction at the end of the Fifth Plan. Experience indicates that management and techniques of construction and monitoring, would need to be considerably improved.

5.28. In finalising the Fifth Plan for Power, emphasis has been placed on the completion of on-going schemes as expeditiously as possible. In recommending outlays, the latest cost of each generation project, status of progress of major items of works, delivery schedules for the equipment and any constraints likely to be faced in implementation were all taken into account. Particular consideration has also been given to infra and inter-State transmission lines, setting up and strengthening of regional load despatch centres, and investments on distribution. Transmission and distribution losses are expected to be reduced. The needs of schemes covered by external assistance have baen also kept in view. Rural electrification will also be significantly higher than in the first three years of the Fifth Plan. The States will also be attracting institutional finance for rural electrification. The programme of energising pump sets will be accelerated. About 13 lakh pump sets are expected to be energised during the Fifth Plan period, as against about 6.3 lakh pump sets in the first three years. About 81,000 additional villages are also expected to be electrified in the Fifth Plan.

5.29. In planning advance action for the Sixth Plan, the power requirements till the end of the Sixth Plan are being kept in view. It has been assumed that the healthy trends In improved utilisation of capacity which have been observed in the Fifth Plan period and the progress in reduction of distribution losses, will continue. Special attention will be paid towards ensuring that regional grids are strengthened, that there is a balanced development of peaking and base load stations in each region, and that optimal use is made of these stations both by an integrated operation within the region and where necessary by cooperation between regions. With these considerations in mind, provision has been made for a number of new starts in the thermal and hydel projects including a centrally owned super thermal station. The views of the States were taken note of particularly in regard to aspects like readiness of projects, construction periods and escalation in cost. Many States expressed their willingness to raise additional resources to meet the requirements of new power projects.

5.30. The power position in northern and eastern regions will continue to be comfortable. But western and southern regions are expected to face both peaking and energy deficits.

5.31. Increased outlays are provided for training facilities for the operation and maintenance of power system, testing facilities for electrical equipment and R and D in such priority areas as geothermal and tidal power.

5.32. The revised outlays under the various categories are summarised below:-

Fifth Plan Power-Financial Outlay

(Rs crores)

item states union terntone centre total dratititth plan
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
1. generation 3722.71 6.52 665.24 4394.47 3323.81
2. transmission and distribution 1897.73 78.78 104.74 2081.25 1634.27
3. rural electrification
(a) M.N.P. and state plan 360.54 10.74 371.28 698.24
(b) rural electrification corporation 314.02 314.02 400.00
4. survey and investigations 74.92 2.72 55.24 132.88 133.68
5. Total 6369.92 98.76 825.22 7293.90 6190.00

5.33. The generation schemes which have been or are expected to be commissioned '•n Fifth Plan period are shown in Annexure 28. The regionwise break up of installed capacity is expected to be as in Annexure 29.

4. Industry and Minerals

5.34. The stresses and strains in the economy kept the industrial growth low :2.5% during 1974-75 and 5.7% during 1975-76. Even so, significant increase in production have been achieved in some of the basic industries like steel, coal, cement, non-ferrous metals and power generation. Decline was particularly noticed in industries like passenger cars, consumer durables and cotton textiles.

5.35. Some of the steps taken to correct this situation can be mentioned. 21 industries including cotton spinning, basic drugs and industrial machinery have been delicensed. In respect of 29 selected i ndustries, the existing units including foreign and MRTP companies have been permitted to utilise their installed capacity without limit. In order to promote exports of engineering goods, 15 engineering industries have been allowed the facility of automatic growth of capacity,at 5% .per annum or up to a ceiling of 25% in a Plan period in physical terms. Various facilities have been extended to non-resident Indians for the establishment of industrial undertakings and for investing their earnings in selected industries. The resources of I DBI and other term lending institutions are also proposed to be augmented. Conditions are now favourable for maintaining the tempo of growth in industrial production and investment, achieved during the last quarter of 1975-76.

5.36. In making revised allocations, speedy completion of projects and appropriate action for starting new projects with long gestation periods have been kept in mind. As against an outlay of Rs. 13,528 crores envisaged in the draft Fifth Plan, the revised figure is placed at Rs. 1 6,660 crores : Rs. 9660 crores in the Central and States Public Sectors and Rs. 7000 crores in private and cooperative sectors.

Central Public Sector

5.37. A detailed list of projects and programmes included in the Central sector of the plan is given in Annexure 30. The broad break up of certain important groups of industries in the public sector is as follows :

Outlays for important groups of industries

(Rs. crores)

Industry Outlay Industry Outlay
1. Steel 1675 7. Non-ferrous metals 468
2. Fertilisers 1533 8. Iron ore (including Kudremukh Project) 513
3. Coal (including lignite) 1147 9. Paper and newsprint 203
4. Oil exploration, 1575 10. Cement 102
refining and distribution 11. Textiles 104
5. Petrochemicals 349 12. Ship Building 147
6. Machinery and engineering industries 365

5.38. The targets of production visualised in the Plan for selected industries is given in Annexure 31. The average rate of industrial growth during the Fifth Plan is reckoned to be around 7% per annum. In view of the relatively lower rate of growth in the first 2 years of the plan, the growth rate in industrial production in the lernaining 3 years of the Plan will have to be maintained around 9 to 10%

Steel

5.39. The domestic demand for finished mild steel is estimated at about 7.75 MT by 1978-79, while the production is expected to be 8.8 MT including a production of 1.06 MT from the mini steel plants and re-roilers. Though a few special categories of steel will still need to be imported, on the whale the country has now emerged as a net exporter of steel.

5.40. The 1.7 MT stage of Bokaro is expected to be completed by the end of 1976. This plant, except the cold-rolling mill, is expected to expand to 4.0 MT by June 1979. The work on the expansion of Bhilai steel plant to 4.0 MT is expected to be completed by December 1981. Plans have also been drawn up for rehabilitation and modernisation of the IISCO plant.

5.41. Considering the longer gestation period in the steel industry, various alternatives for expansion and development are under consideration.

Non-Ferrous Metals

5.42. The Korba plant is expected to achieve its full capacity of 100,000 tonnes of aluminium along with associated fabricating facilities, before the end of the Fifth Plan. Along with the capacity existing in the private sector, this will contribute to the total capacity of 325,000 tonnes and will be adequate to meet the domestic requirements.

5.43. With the commissioning of the Khetri copper complex, the current smelting capacity is 57,000 tonnes per annum. Provision has been made for the development of mining projects at Malanjkhand and Rakha and expansion of copper mines in the Bihar belt. The Plan envisages a production target of 37,000 tonnes of copper from domestic ore by 1978-79.

5.44. The capacity for zinc production is expected to increase to 95,000 tonnes by 1978-79 with the completion of the expansion of Debari smelter (45,000 tonnes) and installation of a new smelter at Vizag (30,000 tonnes).

5.45. A provision of Rs. 468 crores has been made in the Plan towards the various schemes included for the development of non-ferrous metals and associated facilities.

Engineering Industries

5.46. The bulk of the investments is for completing the programme for the production of electric generation equipment and supporting facilities in Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited and for diversification of the production programme of Hindustan Machine Tools for the manufacture of lamp machinery, printing machinery, tractors and watches. Provision has also been made for balancing facilities at Heavy Engineering Corporation and for rehabilitation and diversification programmes of engineering undertakings taken over by the Government.

5.47. A large step up in scooter production is envisaged. The concept of a mother unit supplying components for assembly to a number of subsidiary units has been introduced in the public sector.

5.48. Provision has been made for the Hindustan Shipyard to achieve a production of three ships per annum of 21,600 DWT size. Cochin shipyard will have a capacity of two ships per annum of 75,000 DWT size by 1 977-78. The further expansion to four ships per annum will also be started before the end of the Plan. The establishment of one or more new shipyards is currently under consideration.

5.49. A detailed plan for the development of electronic industry on a scientific basis has been drawn up. Provision has been made for testing facilities and R and D support for the growth of the electronic industry.

Fertilisers

5.50. The installed capacity for nitrogenous fertilisers is expected to reach 4.7 million tonnes by 1 978-79. Since a part of this capacity will be realised only in the last year of the Plan, the production target is placed at 2.9 million tonnes.

5.51. The demand for phosphatic fertilisers has not increased to the extent envisaged. Measures have been mitiated to stimulate consumotion of phosphatic fertilisers. Further expansion of phosphatic fertiliser capacity is being planned.

5.52. Apart from the new plants envisaged in the public sector, it is expected that additional capacity will be promoted in the private sector.

5.53. A total provision of Rs. 1 533 crores has been made in the Fifth Plan for fertilser projects as compared to Rs. 1093.28 crores in the draft Plan. This includes a lumpsum provision for new fertiliser projects and also fertiliser projects in the cooperative sector.

Oil and Natural Gas

5.54. Programme for the exploration and exploitation is being stepped up to intensify activities in the most promising oil bearing areas where the payback is likely to be quicker. Resources are, therefore, mainly being canalised to the development and production of oil from off-shore and selected on-shore areas.

5.55. A time-bound programme has been drawn to develop production of oil from Bombay High to a rated capacity of 10 million tonnes per annum by 1980-81. Studies for optimal exploitation of resources, transportation, processing and utilisation of the oil and associated natural gas are being currently carried out.

5.56. The draft Plan envisaged a step up of crude oil production from 7.2 million tonnes in 1973-74 to 12.0 million tonnes in 1978-79. The production target for crude oil is now placed at 14.18 million tonnes in 1978-79.

5.57. Taking into account the enlarged programme, the outlays for ONGC during the Fifth Plan, have now been revised to Rs. 1056 crores as compared to Rs. 420 crores in the Draft Fifth Plan.

Oil Refining

5.58. The refinery programmes included in the Plan cover the completion of the Kaldia refinery, the expansion of Koyali and the establishment of refineries at Mathura and Bongaigaon. All these projects are expected to be completed in the Fifth Plan excepting Mathura refinery which is scheduled to be commissioned by 1980. By the end of the Fifth Plan, refining capacity will be stepped upto31.5 million tonnes. Provision has been made in the Planter these schemes.

Petrochemicals

5.59. The first major petrochemicals complex at Baroda will be completed during the Fifth Plan period. The Aromatic Project of the complex has already been commissioned. The defines and the downstream units are expected to be commissioned between August, 1977 and April, 1978. The polyester filament yarn project of Petrofils Cooperative Ltd. is also expected to be commissioned in phases between March and July, 1977. A provision of Rs. 349 crores has been made for the above mentioned schemes. A Refinery-cum-Petrochemical unit at Bongaigaon has been included in the Plan.

Coal

5.60 In consonance with the broad policy frame for the Energy sector drawn up by the Fuel Policy Committee, the Draft Fifth Plan envisaged a production target of 1 35 million tonnes by 1978-79.

5.61. A comprehensive programme of advance action involving bulk purchase of standardised plant and equipment and various technical, managerial and administrative improvement together with a favourable industrial climate has resulted in higher production of coal.

5.62. The demand for coal, however, has not kept pace with production. After keeping in view the outlook for coal consuming industries and a review of the current energy situation, the likely demand of coal at the end of the Fifth Plan period has now been projected at 124 million tonnes. Provision has been kept for an export of 2.5 million tonnes of coal in 1978-79 as compared with 1.5 million tonnes envisaged earlier. Consistent witn the revised outlook in demand, the production programmes are being rephased, in a way which would not hamper the future growth.

5.63. Even with this target, the outlays for the Plan are likely to be of the order of Rs. 1025 crores as against the earlier provision of Rs. 747.60 crores. This includes the requirements for the setting up of 1 0 million tonnes of additional washery Capacity, of which, 4 million tonnes will be operational by 1 978-79. Two units of low temperature carbonisation plants are also contemplated. Adequate provision has been made for better housing facilities and other welfare activities etc.

Lignite

5.64. The draft Fifth Plan made a provision of Rs. 39.80 crores for the Neyveli Lignite Project which was expected to reach a production of 6.0 million tonnes in 1978-79.

5.65. On the basis of the review now carried out, this provision has been increased to Rs. 122.25 crores, mainly on account of escalated cost of the specialised mining equipment which is to be imported. In view of the slippages in the implementation of the programme, a production of 4.5 million tonnes of lignite is now expected by the end of the Fifth Plan period, the production of 6 million tonnes being attainable by 1 980-81.

Iron Ore

5.66. The production target envisaged for iron ore in the Draft Plan was 58 million tonnes. Due to slight fill in the domestic demand, the production now envisaged is 56 million tonnes,

5.67. As currently reckoned Donimalai, Bailadila-5 and Kiriburu expansion projects will be commissioned in 1976-77. The development of Meghahatu-buru project for meeting the requirements of Bokaro steel plant at the 4 million tonnes stage is expected to be taken up shortly. Provision has also been made for establishing pelletisation capacity. A notable feature in the field of iron ore development has been the decision to develop the Kudremukh magnetite deposit for a production of 7.5 million tonnes of magnetite concentrates at a cost of around Rs. 567 crores.

5.68. Based on current estimates, a provision of Rs. 107.57 crores, excluding the investments on Kudermukh Project, has been made in the Plan.

Consumer Industries

Sugar

5.69. To achieve speedy implementation of licences issued and to make new sugar factories and expansion schemes economically viable, incentives were announced in September, 1975. The capacity is expected to increase from 4.3 million tonnes in 1 973-74 to 5.4 million tonnes in 1 978-79.

Cotton Textiles

5.70. From a production of 7900 million metres of cloth in 1973-74, the production is expected to go up to 9500 million metres in 1978-79. The share of the mill sector is envisaged at 4800 million metres and the decentralised sector would contribute the balance of 4700 million metres.

5.71. The spinning capacity .is being expanded so as to ensure adequate availability of yarn to the decentralised sector.

5.72. To accelerate the modernisation of the textile industry, a scheme to extend long term finance at concessional rate is being drawn up. A provision of Rs. 104 crores has been made for the rehabilitation and modernisation of the mills of the National Textile Corporation.

Cement

5.73. The capacity in the cement industry is expected to go up to 23.5 million tonnes by 1978-79 from 19.7 million tonnes in 1973-74.

5.74. The share of the public sector (Central and States) in the cement industry is expected to increase from 2.30 million tonnes in 1973-74 to 3.88 million tonnes in 1978-79.

Drugs and Pharmaceuticals

5.75. The drug industry which was mainly confined to formulation activities and the manufacture of bulk drugs from penultimate intermediates has in a progressive manner entered into the field of manufacture of bulk drugs.

5.76. Public sector has been given a prominent role in the overall development of drug industry. A significant step up in production in the area of antibiotics, synthetic drugs and formulations in public sector is envisaged.

Vegetable Oils and Vanaspati

5.77. The production of vanaspati is expected to increase from 449,000 tonnes in 1973-74 to 610,000 tonnes in 1978-79.

Paper and Newsprint

5.78. The production of paper and paper board is expected to be stepped up to 1.05 million tonnes by 1978-79 from 0.77 million tonnes in 1973-74 Provision has been made for initiating construction of two new projects in the Central sector.

5.79. Production of newsprint is envisaged to be stepped up to 80,000 tonnes by 1978-79. The additional production will be contributed primarily by the expanded capacity of NEPA and the Kerala Newsprint project in the public sector.

5.80. A provision of Rs. 203 crores has been made in the Central Sector of the Plan for the development of paper and newsprint industry.

Industrial and mineral programme relating to atomic energy

5.81. The major programmes in this field are the completion of heavy water plants, the schemes under the nuclear fuel complex and the expansion of public sector undertakings under the Department of Atomic Energy. A provision of Rs. 184.18 crores has been made for these programmes.

5. Village and Small Industries Small Scale Industries

5.82. The number, volume and range of production of small scale industries have continued to grow. Schemes of extension services and increase in institutional finance have materially assisted in this increase. Regional testing centres have been established. A few branches of Small Industries Service Institutes have also been opened.

5.83. For the next two years, adequate provisions have been made both for the continuing schemes and for schemes to be formulated for margin or seed money to facilitate institutional finance and for supply of machines on hire-purchase terms.

Industrial Estates

5.84. Of 455 estates functioning by March, 1974, 347 were located in urban and semi-urban areas and the remaining 108 in rural areas. In these estates, about 1 0,1 40 units were functioning providing employment to 1.76 lakh persons.

5.85. Adequate provision has been made for the continuing schemes as well as some new schemes.

Khadi and Village Industries

5.86 Ihe employment in Khadi ragistered an increase from 9.78 lakhs in 1974-75 to 10.0 lakh persons in 1975-76. The increase in village industries was from 9.82 lakhs to 11.28 lakh persons.

5.87. A study has recently been completed by the Administrative Staff College, Hyderabad, regarding the viability of some village industries. Meanwhile, provisions have been made for expansion of the existing programmes.

Handloom and Powerloom Industries

5.88. Certain special schemes have been initiated for revitalisation and development of the handloom industry as a part of the 20-point Economic Programme. These schemes include intensive development projects (each covering about 10,000 handlooms) and export-oriented production projects (each covering about 1,000 handlooms).

5.89. Adequate provisions for continuing schemes as well as for the States to meet a part of the cost of intensive development projects have been made. For the powerloom industry, provisions have been made for processing facilities and setting up technical service centres. The value of exports of handloom fabrics and manufactures is expected to go up to Rs. 1 40 crores from the current level of about Rs. 1 00 crores.

Sericulture

5.90. During the last two years, schemes have been taken up for production of industrial bivoltine mulberry silk in Karnataka, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh.

5.91. These schemes will be expanded during the next two years. The production of raw silk is expected to increase from the present level of about 3.2 m. Kgs to about 5.0 m. Kgs. by 1978-79 and the exports from Rs. 17.5 crores to Rs. 21.0 crores.

Coir Industry

5.92. Recently, a high-powered Study Team has been set up to review the proQress and suggest measures for the development of this industry. Meanwhile, adequate provisions have been made for the continuing schemes. Over the next two years, the value of exports is expected to increase from the present level of about Rs. 19 crores to Rs. 22 crores.

Handicrafts

5.93. Recently, a massive scheme for training 30,000 carpet weavers has been initiated which will help to promote larger exports of woollen carpets. Steps have been taken to develop a few selected handicrafts having a high potential for development.

5.94. The value of exports of handicrafts is expected to go upto Rs. 240 crores, as against the present level of about Rs. 190 crores.General

5.95. The levels of production and exports achieved by some industries are shown in Annexure 32.

5.96. The provisions made for the next two years in the Central and the State sectors for different small industries are shown in Annexure 33.

6. Transport and Communications

5.97. A sectorwise break-up of the provisions in the Central sector for Transport and Communications is indicated in Annexure 34.

Railways

5.98. The expenditure for the first three years of the Plan is likely to be about Rs. 1149 crores; while an outlay of Rs. 1053 crores is proposed for the next two years.

5.99. By 1978-79, the railways would be equipped to carry an estimated originating freight traffic of 250 to 260 million tonnes, of which the largest single commodity would be 98 million tonnes of coal. While finalising provision for replacement or acquisition of locomotives and wagons, emphasis has been laid on better utilization of existing track and rolling stock capacity by maximising movement in block rakes and reducing turn-round time.

5.100. In regard to non-suburban passanger traffic,outlays have been provided after taking into consideration past trends and possible growth in the next two years. Provision for suburban traffic takes into consideration the optimisation programmes of the Railways.

5.101. Full provisions have been made for completion of on-going traffic and project oriented lines. Some provision has also been made for new lines of promotional character to the extent permitted by the available resources.

5.102. Despite constraints on resources, the electrification projects of Virar-^abarmati, Panskura-Haldia and Tundla-Delhi sections have been completed. By the end of the Fifth Plan, it is expected that the Madras-Trivellore section will be fully electrified while electrification of Waltair-Kirandul and Madras-Vijayawada sections would have reached an advanced stage.

5.103. Adequate provision has been made for meeting the Railways' share of the investment in Road Transport Corporations. An outlay of Rs. 50 crores has also been provided for Metropolitan Rail Transport scheme.

5.104. Outlays on the different items of the Railway Development programmes are given in Annexure 35.

Roads

5.105. Main emphasis has been on completion of spill over works of the Fourth Plan, which included a number of missing bridges and road links. It is expected that during the last two years of the Plan, work will be largely completed on such of those works which were in progress at the commencement of the Fifth Plan. Besides, provision has also been made for certain new schemes of essential character, particularly those relating to safety of the traffic.

5.106. The revised outlays for the Central programmes are given below. The figures in the brackets refer to spill over schemes.

(Rs. crores)

programme estimated expenditure (1974-77) outlays (1977-79) revised plan outlay
(0) (1) (2) (3)
1. national highways 176.56 {159.79} 151.06 ('93.06) 327.62 ('252.85)
2. strategic roads 14.00 (12.00) 24.00 ('21.00) 38.00 (33.00}
3. roads of inter-siate and economic importance 9.24 (9.24) 20.76 (14.76) 30.00 (24.00}
4. highway research and developmer 0.20 1.80 2.00
5. roads in sensitive border areas 1.00 9.00 10.00
6. special road/bridge works of national significance mainly for second Hooghly bridge at Calcutta 9.02 15.98 25.00
7. tools and plants 7.82 5.00 12.82
8. Total 217.84 (181.03) 227.60 (1128.82) 445.44 (309.85)

5.107. In the State Plans also emphasis has been laid on completion of the spill over works so that investments already made fructify early. Provision has also been made for rural roads under the Minimum Needs Programme.

5.108. The likely expenditure during the first three years, 1974-77 is reckoned at about Rs. 479.32 crores and the outlays for the next two years are kept at Rs. 423.04 crores.

Road Transport

5.109. The main scheme under the Central sector road transport relates to the Delhi Transport Corporation. At the beginning of the Fifth Plan, the D.T.C. had a total fleet of 1495 buses. During the first three years, the Corporation is likely to acquire 1137 buses, including 682 buses for augmentation and 455 buses for replacement. Provision has been made for acquisition of additional 389 buses based on consideration of traffic growth and efficient fleet utilisation and for construction of additional depots and terminals. A total outlay of Rs. 29.77 crores is envisaged against the Draft Fifth Plan provision of Rs. 23.00 crores.

5.110. In the State sector the estimated expenditure on Road transport during 1974-77 is likely to be Rs. 197.08 crores and an outlay of Rs. 205.87 crores is provided for the next two years.

Major Ports

5.111. The traffic handled at Major Ports is expected to increase from 65.84 million tonnes in 1974-75 to about 77 million tonnes in 1978-79. The main increase is expected to be in iron ore and general cargo,

5.112. With the completion of the major spillover projects at Haldia, Madras, Visakhapatnam, Marmugao and Mangalore during 1976-77 the capacity for handling traffic in bulk commodities like iron ore, coal and fertilisers will be considerably augmented. Provision has also been made for work in connection with replacement of oil pipeline at Bombay, Salaya off-shore terminal, and Kudremukh Iron ore export at Mangalore.

5.11 3. The draft Fifth Plan, provided an outlay of Rs. 308 crores for major ports including about Rs. 200 crores for spill-over schemes. The total outlay now envisaged is Rs. 521.46 crores including Rs. 363.55 crores for spill-over schemes.

Minor Ports

5.114. In the revised Fifth Plan, an outlay of Rs. 49,67 crores has been provided for minor ports including Rs. 27.29 crores in the Plans of States and Union Territories. The provision for Central schemes is on account of Minor Ports Survey and Dredging Organisation and development of port facilities in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Lakshadweep.

Shipping

5.115. In view of a number of major and far-reaching developments such as decline in the import of crude oil, opening of the Suez Canal, non-materialisation of the projected coastal movement of coal, and escalation in the price of ships, the target for shipping tonnage has been reduced from 8.6 million GRT to 6.5 million GRT. Details of the operative tonnage, tonnage on order and tonnage to be acquired are shown in Annexure 36.

5.116. Indian ships, whether new or old are acquired partly by the Shipping Companies out of their own resources and partly through loans granted by the Shipping Development Fund Committee (SDFC) at subsidised rates of interest. A provision of Rs. 410 crores for the Plan period has been made as against the original estimates of Rs. 243 crores.

5.117. Suitable provision has also been made for expansion of training facilities and programmes for the walfare of seamen and for loan assistance to the sailing vessels industry.

Inland Water Transport

5.118. Outlay of Rs. 14.73 crores for next two years includes development of Rajabagan Dockyard, operations of the Central Inland water Transport Corporation and operation of river services on the Ganga. In the Centrally Sponsored programme, the provision of Rs. 5.83 crores is mainly for dredging of Cum-berjua Canal in Goa, ferry services on Hooghly, improvement of Champakara-Neendakara Canal in Kerala and improvement of Buckingham Canal in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

5.119. In addition, a provision of Rs. 7.75 crores has been made for the development of Inland Water Transport in the States and Union Territories.

Light Houses

5.120. As against the draft Fifth Plan provision of Rs. 12 crores for lighthouses and lightships, the revised provision is Rs. 1 3.66 crores. Of this, the provision for 1977-79 is Rs. 6.13 crores. The revised outlay includes Rs. 6.53 crores for Salaya Decca Chain and Floating Aids for approach channel to the Salaya Off-shore Terminal.

Air-India

5.121. One Boeing 747 aircraft joined the Air India fleet of 5 Boeing 737 and 9 Boeing 707 during the Plan period. The outlay of Rs. 38.65 crores during "1977-79 has been made to cover this liability as well as other supporting facilities including interim arrangements towards establishing real time computer system.

Indian Airlines

5.122. Indian Airlines have already acquired during this Plan period 6B-737 aircraft and placed orders for 3 Air Buses (equivalent to 9B-737 aircraft) which are expected to join Indian Airlines fleet shortly. The old Turboprop aircraft are also to be replaced. A total provision of Rs. 99.45 crores has been made to cover the payment liability of the aircraft acquired or to be acquired and for interim arrangements towards use of real time computer facilities.

International Airports Authority of India

5.123. A sum of Rs. 27.67 crores has been provided for the programme of IAAI in the Fifth Plan. This includes a provision of Rs. 11 crores for a new International and Cargo Terminal Complex at Bombay.

Civil Aviation Department

5.124. The provision of Rs. 65.15 crores inter alia includes outlays on aeronautical communication services and works at aerodromes. Under aeronautical communication services, provision has been made for augmentation of calibration facilities and for improving the aeronautical fixed and mobile telecommunication net work. These would further improve the safety of aircraft operation. As regards works at aerodromes, the emphasis in the Draft Fifth Plan on the development of existing aerodromes rather than the taking up of new works has been continued.

Meteorology

5.125. The Plan provision of Rs. 39.58 crores includes the completion of 2.36 M Telescope by the Indian Institute of Astro-physics. This also includes a provision of Rs. 20 crores for Monsoon 1977 experiment, Monex 1979 and INSAT programme.

Tourism

5.126. A provision of Rs. 23.62 crores has been made for the programme of Department of Tourism and that of Rs.17.12 crores for the India Tourism Development Corporation (ITDC). The programmes under the Department of Tourism include loans to hotel industry in the private sector, integrated development of tourist resorts at Kovalam, Gulmarg, Goa and Kulii—Manali and construction of a number of youth hostels,tourists bungalows and forest lodges. The programmes under ITDC include expansion of hotels and construction of travellers' lodges, motels and cottages.

5.127. In the State Sector also a provision of Rs. 33.21 crores has been mt.de for the development of tourism.

Postal Services

5.128. The Plan provision of Rs. 24.38 crores apart from covering the expenditure on opening or upgradation of 2520 post offices during the first three years of the Fifth Plan, is expected to enable opening or upgrading of additional 3800 post offices in the next two years.

Telecommunications

5.129. The revised Plan outlay of Rs. 1129.45 crores would enable creation of additional exchange capacity of 8.42 lakh lines.

5.130. Adequate funds have been set apart for expanding the telegraph system and opening of about 45 Telex exchanges with 10,000 lines capacity.

Overseas Communication Services

5.131. The revised provision of Rs. 35.87 crores includes funds for INTEL-SAT Dehradun Earth Station, SPC Telex Exchange at Bombay and Indo-USSR Tropo Link. Token provisions have also been made for a wide-band submarine Link between India and Malayasian Peninsula as well as the new schemes relating to Indo-Afghan Tropo-scatter Link, Andaman Earth Station and Third Earth Station at Calcutta.

I.T.I, and Hindustan Teleprinters Limited

5.132. Adequate provision has been made for the continuing and the expansion programmes of these industries.

5.133. The statement below gives the programme-wise outlays:

Fifth Plan Outlay : Communications

  programme outlay (Rs. crores)
  (0) (1)
1. P and 7" Department 1153.83
  (i) postal services 24.38
  (ii) telecommunications 1129.45
2. other communications 112.78
  (i) indian telephone industries 52.85
  (ii) overseas communications service 35.87
  (iii) hindustan teleprinters limited 3.00
  (iv) monitoring organisation (for radio frequency management) 1.06
  (v) INSAT 20.00
3 Total 1266.61

Sound Broadcasting

5.134. The revised provision of Rs. 37.63 crores lays emphasis on completion of continuing schemes costing Rs. 32.52 crores. The balance provision is for initiating action for new Transmitter schemes, improvement of studio facilities, software requirements and construction of staff quarters.

Television

5.135. The revised Fifth Plan outlay for TV is Rs. 50.98 crores, of which Rs. 33.41 crores is for continuing schemes and Rs. 17.57 crores for new schemes. The new schemes include setting up of 2 transmitters of 10 KW each at Hyderabad and Jaipur and 4 low-power transmitters of 400 watts at Gul-barga, Sambalpur, Muzaffarpur and Raipur. These transmitters would serve about 40 per cent of the villages covered under the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment (SITE) programme after the termination of Experiment. For Community Viewing, provision has been made for about 3000 conventional TV sets and modificatipn of about 2400 special sets deployed under the SITE programme. The Plan also provides for software schemes to improve the quality of programme.

7. Education

5.136. Plan outlays for education during the first three years of the plan have been somewhat modest because of the economic situation but the growth in the total governmental expenditure on education, both plan and non-plan, must be considered substantial. The total expenditure is estimated to rise from Rs. 1450 crores in 1974-75 to about Rs. 2287 crores in 1 976-77.

5.137. Elementary Education : Very high priority has been given to this programme. Adequate provision has been made for additional enrolment in terms of teaching personnel and construction of class-rooms, especially in backward areas.

5.138. The table below indicates the additional enrolments, which are likely to be achieved by the end of the Fifth Plan :

Growth of Enrolment (figures in lakhs)

    CLASSES I-V CLASSES VI-VIII
boys girls total boys girls total
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
1. 1973-74 (position) * 396 (100) 245 (66) 641(84) 107 (48) 46 (22) 153 (36)
2. 1974-77 (additional achievemenit) 37 33 70 17 12 29
3. 1977-79 (proposed additional target) 30 30 60 16 13 29
4. 1974-79 (additional achievement line 2+3) 67 63 130 33 25 58
5. 1978-79 (likely position) 463 (111) 308 (79) 771(96) 140 (59) 71 (32) 211 (46)

5.139. In addition to the expansion of educational facilities, provision has been made for curricular reorientation, work experience and strengthening of educational institutions for teachers.

5.140. Secondary Education : The existing trend in the increase of enrolment has been kept in view. Against the additional enrolment of 1 5 lakhs likely to be achieved in the first three years, an enrolment target of another 15 lakh in classes IX-XI/XII has been proposed for 1977-79. The percentage of children of the age-group 1.4-1 71 8, enrolled in classes IX-XI/XII will increase from 20 in 1973-74 to 25 in 1978-79. While making provisions, note has been taken of the requirements on account of the introduction of the new pattern of education.

5.141. After detailed preparatory work, vocationalisation at the secondary stage will be initiated in selected areas during the next two years so that well-conceived and fully thought-out programmes are implemented.

5.142. University Education : The main emphasis in university education is on consolidation and improvement. Provision is, however, being made to provide additional educational facilities to weaker sections of society and in the backward areas. Facilities through evening colleges, correspondence courses and private study will be expanded. Post-graduate education and research will continue to be strengthened through the development of centres of advanced study, science service centres, common computer facilities and regional instrumentation workshops. Programmes of faculty development, like summer institutes, seminars and orientation courses will be stepped up. These figures are taken from Draft Fifth Plan. The Third Education Survey, however, indicated that the enrolments in classes l-V-and-VI-VIII in 1973-74 were 611 lakhs (80%) and 141 lakhs (33%) respectively. Assuming the Survey enrolments as the base figures, the loial enrolment in 1978-79 in Ihese iwo groups would be 741 lakhs (92%) and 199 lakhs (43 %).Figures in parenthesis indicate the proportion of children of respective age groups enrolled in Classes I-V and VI-VIII.

5.143 Non-Formal Education : With the strengthening of existing programmes of non-formal education, about 16 lakh participants are expected to be covered under these programmes. The existing programmes are intended to be reviewed.

5.144. Scholarships: 12,000 awards are being given every year from 1974-75 onwards, from the non-plan budget. The number of annual awards under the National Scholarship Scheme was 3,000 in each of the first two years of the Plan and 5000 in 1 976-77. Provision has been made to increase the number to 7,000 in 1 977-78 and to 10,000 in 1 978-79. Provision has also been made for continuing 20,000 yearly national loan scholarship awards during the Fifth Plan period. The number of national scholarships for talented children from rural areas, which was 1 0,000 each year during 1 974-77, will be increased to 1 5,000 per year during 1 977-79; thus increasing the number of scholarships per community development block from 2 to 3. Other programmes of scholarships will be continued.

5.145. Language Development: Provision has been made for the appointment of 2000 additional Hindi teachers in middle and secondary schools during 1977-79, in non-Hindi speaking States. These are in addition to 4,000 teachers appointed during 1974-77. This programme will be reviewed with a view to determining its benefits. The Central Institute of Indian Languages (Mysore), the Kendriya Hindi Sansthan (Agra), the Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan (New Delhi) and the Central Institute of English and Foreign Languages (Hyderabad) will be further developed.

5.146. Other Programmes : Provision has been made for strengthening of the existing Nehru Yuvak Kendras and for setting up some more Kendras at approved places. While the coverage of the National Service Scheme will be expanded. National Service Volunteers Scheme is expected to be launched on a pilot basis. Facilities for games and sports, coaching camps and rural sports will be expanded. Provision has been made for the development of Central Libraries.

5.147. Technical Education : Generally, the emphasis is on consolidation and quality improvement in terms of faculty development, replacement of obsolete equipment and diversification of courses. Centres of studies in material science, cryogenic engineering, energy studies and ocean engineering are expected to be established in close collaboration with user agencies. Provision has been made for augmenting physical facilities at the existing Institutes of Management, and preparatory work will be started for establishment of the fourth Institute at Lucknow. Reginal Engineering Colleges and the Engineering Departments in the universities will be-further developed.

5.148. Cultural Programmes : Provision has been made, inter alia, for further development of the three national academies of Sahitya, Sangeet Natak and Lalit Kala, propagation of culture among college and school students, revision of district gazetteers and development of various activities of the Archaeological Survey of India.

5.149. 20-Point-Socio-Economic Programmes : Three components of this programme are provision of books and stationery to students at cheaper rates, supply of essential commodities to hostel students at subsidised prices and expansior if apprenticeship training programme. The capacity of the textbook printing presses is being developed further. Book banks will continue to be established in educational institutions. The coverage of apprenticeship scheme is being expanded.

5.150. Outlays : For completing the various tasks related to educational development, an outlay of Rs. 1285 crores has been provided for different sectors as indicated below :

(Rs. crores)

  sub-head likely expenditure 1974-77 proposed 1977-79 proposed fifih plan outlay
(0) (1) (2) (3)
1. elementary education 180 230 410
2. secondary education 111 139 250
3. university education 140 152 292
4. special education 9 9 18
5. other programmes 57 65 122
6. toial (general education) 497 595 1092
7. technical education 75 81 156
8. art and culture 16 21 37
9. Total education 555 697 7285

In relation to the first three years, the proposed outlay in the next two 'ears marks a considerable step-up.

8. Health, Family Welfare Planning and Nutrition

Health Central Sector

5.1 51. In the draft Fifth Plan, an amount of Rs. 252.79 crores was provided for this sector The expenditure during the first three years is likely to be Rs. 1 52-93 crores. An outlay of Rs. 182'90 crores has been recommended for the last two years after assessing the performance of various major on-going programmes and after keeping in view the broad aspects of health strategy.

5.152. Among the Centrally sponsored schemes National Malaria Eradication Programme has been allocated Rs. 196-44 crores as against the original provision of Rs 96-71 crores in the Draft Fifth Plan. A substantial increase in the outlay for this programme has become necessary to contain the disease according to a revised strategy. Provision has also been made for more effective implementation of National Leprosy Control Programme and the National Scheme for prevention of impairment of vision and control of blindness. A pilot research project to develop a strategy for control of filaria in rural areas has also been included. Adequate provision has been made during 1 977-79 for establishing combined food and drug testing laboratories and for giving Central assistance to existing food laboratories in the States.

State Sector

5.153. An outlay of Rs. 543 21 crores was provided in the draft Plan for various health programmes under the States and Union Territories. The total likely expenditure for the first three years of the Fifth Plan is estimated at Rs. 159-92 crores. For the remaining two years of the Fifth Five Year Plan i.e., 1977-79, an outlay of Rs. 185-91 crores has been recommended.

5.154. These provisions include the requirements of the on-going programmes and the reed for reasonable expansion, extension and development of rural health services. It has been ensured that all the primary health centres and sub-centres in the country would get drugs at the enhanced level of Rs.1 2,000/-per PHC and Rs. 2,000/- per sub-centre per annum. Adequate provision has also been made for medical education.

General

5.155. The revised total Fifth Plan outlay for the Health Sector thus works out to Rs. 681.66 crores. The break-up of the outlay for the Central and State Sectors is given below :

(Rs. crores)

scheme 1974-77 anticipated expenditure 1977-79 proposed outlay revised fifth plan outlay
(0) (1) (2) (3)
1. central 28.60 39.06 67.66
2. centrally sponsored 124.33 143.84 268.17
3. siaies/U.Ts 159.92 185.91 345.83
4. Total 372.85 368.87 681.66

Family Welfare Planning Programmes

5.156. In the draft Plan an amount of Rs. 516.00 crores was provided for programmes relating to family welfare planning. The likely expenditure during the first three years of the Fifth Plan is expected to be of the order of Rs. 237.65 crores.

5.157. An outlay of Rs. 259'71 crores has been recommended for the period 1977-79. The family planning programmes wilt be carried forward in an integrated manner alongwith Health,Maternity and Child Health Care and Nutrition services on the basis of the strategy outlined in the draft Fifth Plan. Firm and bold steps envisaged in the National Population Policy to improve the tempo of the programme has been kept in view in recommending the revised outlays. To cope with the increasing demand for sterilisation, facilities will be expanded at 1000 selected Primary Health Centres and 325 Taluka level hospitals during 1976-79. Two hundred additional post-partum centres beyond the original targets in the draft Fifth Plan are also proposed to be opened. Another unit of the Hindustan Latex Ltd. will be set up at Farakka to meet the increased demand of Nirodh. The India Population Project with Sl DA/I DA assistance will be carr.pleted by the end of the Fifth Plan. Special multi-media motivation campaigns on pilot basis will be launched in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal. Maternity and child health programmes will be vigorously pursued and furds for this purpose will be made available on the basis of performance. Research and evaluation facilities will be strengthened. Funds for completion of incomplete buildings and for construction of essential buildings for Rural Family Welfare Planning Centres have been provided. 288 New Rural Family Welfare Planning Centres will be opened in a phased manner.

5.158. A total provision of Rs. 497.36 crores has been envisaged in the revised Fifth Plan. Summary of the outlays is given in the enclosed statement (Annexure 37).

Nutrition Central Sector

5.159. Indraft Fifth Ptan, an amount of Rs. 70 crores was provided in the Central Sector. Rs. 50 crores were earmarked for the Subsidiary Food and a Nutrition Scheme of the Department of Food, and Rs. 20 crores for the Applied Nutrition Programme of the Department of Rural Development.

Nutrition Schemes of the Department of Food

5.160. The likely expenditure during the first three years of the Fifth Plan is placed at Rs. 6.53 crores. Under the revised Fifth Plan an outlay of Rs. 6.70 crores has been provided during 1977-79 for production of nutritions foods. An amount of Rs. 1.27 crores has also been recommended during 1977-79 for other schemes like fortification of Food Stuffs, nutrition education through mass media, Pilot Research Projects etc. An outlay of Rs. 7.97 crores has thus been recommended for 1977-79 making up a Fifth Plan provision of Rs. 14.50 crores.

Applied Nutrition Programme (Deptt. of Rural Development)

5.1 61. The outlay of Rs. 20 crores provided in the draft Fifth Plan was meant for providing Central assistance to the on going Applied Nutrition Blocks, opening of 700 new blocks and maintenance of post operational blocks for one year after existence for a period of five years. Due to constraint of resources in the social Services Sector only 192 blocks were set up in the first two years (1974-76) of the Plan. The likely expenditure during the first three years of the Plan is Rs. 4.48 crores. A sum of Rs. 8.51 crores has been recommended for 1977-79. The total outlay under the revised Fifth Plan works out to Rs. 1 2.99 crores.

State Sector

5.1 62. In the draft Fifth Five Year Plan, an amount of Rs. 330.00 crores was provided for the States and Union Territories, for the supplementary Feeding programmes, i. e.. Mid-day Meals Programme for the School going children and Special Nutrition Programme for the children in the age group of 0-6 years and expectant and lactating mothers. Likely expenditure during the first three years of the Plan is placed at Rs. 44.24 crores. The slow progress in the initial years of the Fifth Plan was mainly due to the financial constraint and non-availability of funds in the non-Plan budgets of the State Governments for meeting cost of food, administration and transport for the beneficiaries. For the remaining years of the Fifth Plan adequate provision has been made from the non-Plan resources of the State for beneficiaries cf special nutrition programme at the end of the Fourth Plan. After taking into account a reasonable expansion, a provision of Rs. 43.94 crores has been recommended by Planning Commision for 1977-79-The revised outlay under the Fifth Plan thus works out to Rs. 88.18 crores. A statement showing programme-wise break-up under the revised Fifth Plan is attached (Annexure 38).

9. Urban Development, Housing and Water Supply

Urban Development

5.163. Provision made in the State Plans for integrated Urban Development are being supplemented by funds provided for the scheme of integrated Urban Development in the Central Sector. This scheme provides loan assistance to State Governments for developing the necessary infrastructure. It is expected that over a period of time the State Governments will be able to build up a corpus of seed money for expansion programmes

5.164. Urban Development progrmmes were taken up in the three metropolitan cities of Calcutta, Bombay and Madras and nine other cities in 1974-75. Additional six cities were taken up in 1975-76 and it is expected that six more will be taken up during 1976-77. Work for the preparation of Plans for some other cities is in hand .

5.165. In view of the progress made so far, total provision of Rs. 256.13 crores has been made for Urban Development for next two years against a likely expenditure of Rs. 249.33 crores during 1974-77, as indicated in Annexure 39.Housing

5.166. The main thrust of the programmes in the Fifth Plan is directed towards ameliorating the conditions of the backward sections of the society. This is sought to be achieved by augmenting the programmes for the construction of housing colonies by State Housing Boards and by taking up on a large scale a programme for the provision of house-sites for landless labourers in rural areas. While the bulk of this programme is being undertaken in the State Plans, the activities of the Housing and Urban Development Corporation in the Central sector are being geared up to meet the expanding demand. A provision is being made to increase the Equity participation in HUDCO to enable it to generate resources of the order of Rs. 150 crores in the Fifth Plan period. Separate provisions have been made for the scheme of subsidised housing for plantation labourers and Dock labourers. AdeqLate emphasis has also been placed on research and development activities for generating better and cheaper designs. The outlays for various programmes in the State and Central sectors have been indicated in Annexure 40.

Water Supply and Sanitation Rural Water Supply

5.167. The main objective is to provide safe water supply in difficult and problem villages. At the end of the Fourth Plan period, it had been estimated that there were 1.13 lakhs of such villages. It is expected that in the first three years of the Fifth Plan with a provision of Rs. 201.10 crores, about 57,800 villages would have been covered. The allocation made for the remaining two years is on the basis of providing safe water supply for additional 53,900 villages. The provision which has been made is of the order of Rs. 180.14 crores (inclusive of Rs. 1 57.87 crores under the MNP). The revised Fifth Plan outlay would now be Rs. 381.24 crores.

Urban Water Supply and Sanitation

5.168. Particular emphasis is being laid on completion of spill over schemes. In the first three years with an investment of Rs. 257.54 crores, about 266 towns are likely to be covered with water supply and 46 towns with sewerage and drainage systems. With an outlay of Rs. 281.63 crores for the remaining two years of the Fifth Plan, about 254 towns are likely to be covered with water supply and 38 with sewerage and drainage systems. The outlay mentioned above will be supplemented from the Central sector scheme of Integrated Urban Development in cities of national importance such as Bombay, Calcutta, Madras, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Kanpur, Lucknow, Agra, Allahabad, Varanasi, etc. The outlay in the Fifth Plan amounts to Rs. 539.17 crores against the outlay Rs. 431.00 crores in the Draft Fifth Plan.

5.169. The revised Fifth Plan also provides for an outlay of Rs. 10.27 crores for supporting programmes such as public Health Engineering training to train about 3000 Public Health Engineering personnel and mechanical composting to set up 27 mechanical compost plants along with 60 mechanical sieve plants in different cities. A provision also exist for converting about 30,000-35,000 dry latrines into sanitary latrines.

5.170 The revised outlays for water Supply and sanitation are given in Annexure 41.

10. Craftsman Training and Labour Welfare Central Plan

5.171. In the draft Fifth Plan, an amount of Rs. 14.57 crores was provided in the Central Plan. The likely expenditure during the first three years of the Fifth Plan is placed at Rs. 4.01 crores.

5.172. For the two year period 1977-79 a provision of Rs. 10.17 crores has been made. This will cover (i) the requirements of the major on-going training institutions such as the Central Staff Training and Research Institute, the Foreman Training Institute, and the Central Training Institutes for instructors ; (ii) the strengthening/extension of the Advanced Training Institute ; (iii) the expansion of the Apprenticeship Training programme ; (iv) Vocational Training in Women's occupations ; and (v) Sche.nes relating to research, surveys and studies to be undertaken by various institutes.

Flans of States Union Territories

5.173. In the draft Fifth Plan, an amount of Rs. 42.37 crores was provided for States and Union Territories. The likely expenditure during the first three years of the Plan is placed at Rs. 15.69 crores.

5.174. For the two year period 1977-79, an .outlay of Rs. 20.27 crores has been suggested keeping in view the requirements of (i) the industrial training institutes ; (iiy-the expansion of the Apprenticeship Training Programmes in the establishments ; (iii) the strenghtening of the employment service organisations; (iv) the setting up of labour welfare centres, and promoting safety measures; and (v) the Employees' State Insurance Scheme,

Revised Fifth Plan Outlays for Craftsmen Training and Labour Welfare
(Rs. lakhs)

  draft fifth five year plan 1974-77 anticipated expenditure 1977-79 proposed outlay revised fifth plan outlay
(0) (1) (2) (3) (4)
centre 1457 401 1017 1418
state 3751 1407 1685 3092
union territories 486 162 342 504
Total 5694 1970 3044 5074

ll. Hill and Tribal Areas, Backward Classes Social Welfare and Rehabilitation

Hill Areas

5.175. This scheme refers to the hill regions of Assam, Tamil Nadu, U.P., West Bengal and the Western Ghats region. Programmes of singnificance are funded party from the State Plan and partly from the sub-plan allocations. During the fisrt three years of the Plan, Central allocations would be of the order of Rs. 76 crores while the States are likely to invest about Rs. 68 crores.

5.176. With the experience gained so far, the programme is now expected to gather momentum. A provision of Rs. 94 crores is earmarked for the next two years in the Central Plan.

Tribal Areas

5.177. Tribal sub-plans incorporating programmes of particular significance to the tribal economy are being prepared for areas, with large concentration of Scheduled Tribes, in 16 States and 2 Union Territories. These programmes are funded through provisions in the State Plans, and Central assistance. So far about 40, out of 145 Integrated Tribal Development projects have been formulated and an amount of Rs. 65 crores is likely to be spent during the first three years of the Plan.

5.178. Initial difficulties are now expected to be overcome and it is expected that the rest of the lTDPs would be formulated and implemented in the remaining period of the Fifth Plan. On this basis, a provision of Rs. 125 crores of Central assistance is being made for the next two years.

5.179. Priority has been accorded to regional schemes of agriculture, power and communications forwarded by NEC for securing a balanced development of the north-eastern region. It is expected that in the first three years an expenditure of Rs. 28 crores would be incurred on such schemes. Due to initial difficulties in identifying and implementing schemes, the programme has had a slow start. It is, however, now gathering pace. A provision of Rs. 62 crores has been kept for the next two years.

5.180. A statement indicating the outlays for these programmes is given below :

(Rs. crores)

  anticipated expenditure 1974-77 outlays for 1977-79 total fifth plan
(0) (1) (2) (3)
1. Hill areas 76 94 170
2. N.E.C. 28 62 90
3. tribal areas
4. total
65
169
125
281
190
450

Welfare of Backward Classes

5.181. The revised Fifth Plan outlays for the Centre and the States have been raised to Rs. 119 crores and Rs 208 crores respectively. The details are given in Annexure 42. In the Central Plan, emphasis has been placed on post-matric scholarships, schemes for coaching of students and girls' hostel. In the State Plans, provision has been made inter alia for educational incentives, subsidised housing, various agricultural programmes and requirement of development Corporations.

Social Welfare

5.182. The revised Fifth Plan outlays for the Centre and States are Rs. 63.53 crores and Rs. 22.60 crores respectively. Details are given in Annexure 43.

5.183. These outlays are related to the progress reported in the implementation of the various schemes. Care has been taken to ensure that important programmes like Intergrated Child Care Services, Working Girls Hostels, Scholarships for Handicapped Persons in the Central Sector and women and child welfare Programmes and Programmes of Social Defence in the State sector are provided adequate funds.

Rehabilitation

5.184. The Draft Fifth Plan envisaged the resettlement of 65827 families. This figure has now been reassessed at 67067 familes. It is expected that against an overall expenditure of Rs. 47.62 crores in the first three years of the Plan, 35767 families would have been recently resettled. The outlays for the next two years of the Fifth Plan are based on the following considerations :

(i) Sri Lanka : Of the expected 28,434 families, 16,434 have so far been resettled at a cost of Rs. 14.17 crores. It is expected that 12,000 families would be resettled during the next two years at an approximate cost of Rs. 14 crores.

(ii) Dandakarnaya : Of the 9120 families in camp, 3120 have been resettled in the first three years at an approximate cost of Rs. 1 3.54 crores. It is expected that 6000 families would be resettled in the remaining period of the Plan at an approximate cost of Rs. 12 crores. Besides the direct cost of resettlement, the outlays include expenditure on major irrigation projects and other infrastructure development.

(iii) Residual problems of rehabilitation in West Bengal : On the basis of the recommendations contained in the report of the working Group set up by the Department of Rehabilitation, a provision of Rs. 10.20 crores has been made. This is based on an assessment that besides acceleration of the SFDA/MFAL programmes in areas where these migrants were concentrated and outlays required for the provision of medical facilities, 8000 plots in the colonies of displaced persons located in the Calcutta Metropolitan District and 4000 other urban plots would be developed.

(iv) Other Schemes : With regard to progammes for the resettlement of repatriates from Burma, West Pakistan, Uganda, Zaire and migrants from Indian enclaves in former East Pakistan, an expenditure of Rs. 1 7.73 crores has been incurred in the first three years of the Plan, to resettle 1 5843 families. It is expected that in the remaining two vears 11 300 families would require resettlement for which a provision of Rs. 1 7.39 crores has been made.

5.185. Scheme-wise outlays provided in the Fifth Plan are given in Annexure 44.

12. Science and Technology

5.186. In finalising the Fifth Five-Year Plan for Science and Technology (S and T) an attempt has been made to restructure research programmes as far as practicable into projects with predetermined time spans, costs and expected benefits. In a departure from previous practice, the S and T programmes of the different Ministries were the subject of separate discussions at which emphasis was placed on aligning research programmes to conform more closely with plan priorities and promoting quicker interaction between the users of research and the research agencies, so that problems ara more sharply defined and transfer of technology is facilitated.

5.187. Particular attention Fs expected to be paid to fuller use of existing facilities, avoiding of unplanned duplication of research into similar problems by different agencies, minimising sub-critical funding by spreading resources over too many projects, and closer monitoring of research programmes right up to the stage of their application in the field.

5.188. The thrust of the various sectoral programmes broadly remain as outlined in the draft Fifth Plan. In agriculture, specific emphasis will be placed on programmes to control crop diseases, crop sequencing, dry farming, agricultural implements, post harvesting technology etc. New agro-industrial complexes, setting up of a fish farm and increased support to agricultural institutes, animal sciences and fisheries institutes are envisaged in the Plan. Programmes for improving the technology used in village and rural industries are proposed to be intensified. Activities proposed cover bee keeping, pottery, palm gur, gur and khandsari. To acquire a closer insight into the problems of optimal management of water resources, an Institute of Hydrology is proposed to be set up. Steps will be taken to see that central R and D irrigation schemes are not sub-criticaliy funded and a mechanism is set up to see that research findings are expeditiously applied in the field.

5.189. In the area of energy, a multi-pronged approach to develop biogas technology, as well as new sources such as solar energy, tidal and wind power has been initiated. A major programme on magneto hydro dynamics is being undertaken as an inter-institutional project. Programmes for improved mining techniques, mine safety, transportation and gassification of coal have been given priority. Programmes for developing stowing materials, improved instruments, and processes for upgrading coal are being funded.

5.190 In power engineering, test facilities, specially those connected with high voltage/DC transmission lines have been given special attention. No significant departures from the draft Fifth Plan programmes have been proposed in the research programmes of the Department of Atomic Energy except for the power reactor fuel reprocessing plants and investment in facilities for making seamless steel tubes for ball bearings and power plants.

5.191. In steel, the major thrust in use of S and T has been to improve the productivity and capacity utilisation of the steel plants, utilise low grade materials, improve refractory quality, develop new alloys and work on new techniques for making sponge iron. A wide range of chemicals particularly pesticides, drugs, and intermediates hitherto imported, is being developed by several institutions, in particular by CSIR laboratories and the public sector companies in these fields. In heavy engineering, the setting up of a research institute for welding deserves special mention.

5.192. Special emphasis is being paid to surveying and research on developing the country's natural resources. The programmes of bodies such as the National Remote Sensing Agency, geological and other surveying agencies and National Institutes of Oceanography have been given high priority. These are being supplemented by the programme of the Department of Space for launching satellite with remote sensing capabilities and institutional research facilities for petroleum exploration and reservoir studies. Tree breeding and prevention of disease in important tree species have been given special attention. In meteorology, apart from strengthening the existing institutes, a major new programme is India's participation in Monsoon 77 in collaboration with USSR and Monex (monsoon experiment) as a part of a world-wide study of the factors which affect the weather. Provision has been made for INSAT-1, the proposed Indian-owned geo-synchronous satellite which will provide a variety of meteorological data.

5.193. In health, the focus has been placed on research into new methods of family planning, integrated system for delivery of health care services to infants, and control and prevention of communicable diseases including malaria, tuberculosis and cholera.

5.194. The priority area in housing and urban development is the development of new low cost housing designs and materials, rural sanitation and waste water treatment. Agencies concerned with environmental protection have been given due attention.

5.195. In the area of electronics, substantially more funds will be given to various institutions for research in the indigenisation of a large variety of electronic components. In addition, the Department of Electronics will establish major multi-user regional computer centres in certain metropolitan cities and set up a corporation for making semi-conductor devices. Support will be given to developing the infra-structure for electronic standards and testing techniques at various institutes like NPL and the national test houses. The Department has already established corporations for maintaining computers and developing trade and technology in electronic items. Tele-communication research will concentrate on indigenising many of the components hitherto imported and development work on electronic communication systems, the major emphasis being on instruments, transmission system and exchange equipment. An Asian Telecommunication Training Centre is proposed to be set up at Ghaziabad.

5.196. The major efforts in space research will be to gear up research work and develop components to enable a series of variants of the SLV 111 launcher being produced and more advanced satellites being launched in collaboration with other countries. The proposed INSAT-1 which, in addition to meteorological equipment will have various tele-cummunication and other capabilities, will give added relevance to these programmes.

5.197. Under the Department of Science and Technology, plans have been finalised for making a beginning with the national information system on science and technology (NISSAT). Provision has been made for the manufacture of fer rites and electronic ceramics by a new company and for a substantial step-up in funds for sponsored projects under the Science and Engineering Research Committee.

5.198. Considerable effort is proposed to be put into developing new instruments for operation, process control, measurement and research by a variety of agencies. Coordinating inputs are proposed to be provided by the Instrument Development Division of the Department of Science and Technology.

5.199. Testing facilities under agencies like the National Test House and Indian Standards Institution will be strengthened.

5.200. In order to stimulate indigenous research, industrial licensing regulations have been liberalised in the case of industries which are proposed to be set up based on R and D developed in-house or by national laboratories. The question of levying R and D cess is under consideration.

5.201 A Department wise distribution of the outlays for Science and Technology is indicated in Annexure 45. A provision of Rs. 5 crores has been included in the outlays of each of the Ministries of Information and Broadcasting and Tourism and Civil Aviation (Meteorology) for INSAT.

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