|6th Five Year Plan||
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five year Plans have stressed this importance of strengthening the implementation
machinery so that the projects and programmes included in the Plan move
according to time schedules and targets. It has also been recognised that
implementation needs to be supported by adequate monitoring and current
and post-evaluation of major programmes so that lessons of experience
enable improvements in the design of programmes themselves. There is further
indication from experience that deficiencies in implementation may also
be due to inadequate planning of projects at the initial stage causing
slippages in schedules, cost over-runs and poor performance generally.
Thus when one talks of failures of implementation, one should look upon
planning, implementation and evaluation as an integral process, each deriving
strength from the other (and transmitting its weeknesses all the way through
the process). The problems in all these three areas planning, implementation
and evaluationdiffer from sector to sector. In the sectors, such
,as industry, power and transport, project formulation techniques, as
well as methods of appraisal, monitoring and evaluation are more advanced
than i'n the poverty removal and social services sectors.
8.2 In the public sector of the Sixth Plan, the targets in respect of projects/schemes will have to be implemented within the fixed time-frame and with full achievement of the programme content particularly in such programmes as NREP, IRDP, Minimum Needs, Family Planning, etc.
8.3 To acheive the optimum results out of investment, care has to be taken to ensure that the following points with regard to the implementation of the various schemes/projects, etc. included in the Plan c're given adequate attention.
(i) The Sixth Five Year Pian like the previous Plans is a plan of action for the national economy which is drawn up after very careful consideration and exhaustive consultations with the State Governments, Central Ministries and various other organisations concerned with the Plan formulation and its implementation. Consultations have also been held with a wide variety of professional organisations as well as individual experts and mass media and trade union representatives. It may be difficult to include new schemes without sacrificing essential programmes which have been included in the original Plan. It would, therefore, appear desirable that after the Plan has been accepted and approved, 'no new scheme/ project etc. should be introduced in the Sixth Five Year Plan by any agency unless there are some compelling considerations that such a scheme/project should be introduced during the operation of the Plan; but in that case ihese new proposals should be very carefully considered by the concerned authority, whether it be the State Government or the Central Minis :ry and the Planning Commission. This is with a view to ensure that the resources which have. been calculated while drawing up of the plan are indeed spent over schemes/projects etc. which are included in the Plan. This, in fact, would ensure that on-going schemes/projects are completed expeditiously and the resources earmarked for them are not spread over a large number of other schemes resulting in neither the on-going schemes being productive, nor the new ones progressing satisfactorily due to sub-critical investment.
(ii) It is essential that for each scheme/project included in the Sixth Plan, whether in the State sector or in the Central sector, a firm time-table is drawn up consisting at least of the following major components:
(a) The date on which the project report will be firmed up taking into account various parameters specified in the Plan.
(b) The dates on which the sanctioning authority, whether it is the State Government or the Central Government (as the c.ase may be) will be ready with the formal sanction separately in respect of each of the schemes/ projec's, whether it is in the industrial, irrigation, power, education, transport or nny other sector of the national economy.
(c) The dates on which different contracts for various schemes/projects will be finalised and the coniract documents signed.
After these critical landmarks are determined, which may be called the pre-implcmentation stages of each of the projects [schemes, the Departments [organisations concerned with the implementation of the Plan should be under an obligation and made responsible to adhere to the time table as determined in the above formulations.
(iii) In order to ensure that the time table as mentioned above is strictly adhered to, the delegation of authority for investment decisions, clearance of contracts etc. should be considerably enhanced, and indeed a good deal of trust be placed on those who are directly responsible for implementing the schemes/ projects etc. included in the Plan.
(iv) After determining the exact date of physical start-up of the projects, a PERT network should be drawn up for each scheme/project, no matter m what discipline such a scheme or project exists, and the end date of the completion of the scheme be determined. After this end date has been determined, there should be no revision backwards of the end date, and all performance should be judged against the final targets.
(v) Experience gained over the last thirty years has shown that it would be highly desirable that before a project is included in the Plan and later on taken up for implementation, a very detailed examination of the scheme/project be undertaken. Detailed site investigations, geological investigations, testing of raw materials, technology assessment, etc. should be undertaken in all cases. Expenditures on these investigations are very necessary and should be sanctioned liberally.
(vi) With regard to major projects in the field of industry, power, irrigation, etc. a good deal of controversy tends to surround matters like exact location, choice of technology etc. The time taken to resolve these controversies is inordinately long and the economy loses very valuable benefits in the meantime. It is necessary, therefore, that the procedures used for resolving these controversies are simplified and made expeditious.
(vii) Public sector projects funded from the budget have to obt,ain funds on an annual basis. Under our budgetary procedures, unutilised funds have to lapse towards the end of the financial year. The possibility of funding on a long term basis, at least in critical sectors, will have to be examined as against the present system of annual funding. This will avoid delay in the implementation of projects.
(viii) Persons responsible for the implementation of the Plan should be made to feel a sense of involvement in fulfilling of the Plan targets. Every impediment which thwarts initiative, and sense of expedition in operating the Plan schemes ought to be removed. For this purpose, the existing procedure would need a very careful examination so that proper formulations are drawn up quickly, and implemented.
(ix) Experience has shown that when the project is undertaken, and even before the first phase of the project has been completed, expansion schemes have been introduced with the result that neither the objectives of the first phase were achieved, nor the various expansion projects which were loaded on to the original projects were productive. Such arrangements have also resulted in considerable time and cost overruns as also financial resources originally envisaged have seldom been achieved. It has also diluted responsibility. It would, therefore, be imperative that no expansion projects should be taken up unless the original project is completed, and is fully stabilised, and has given the desired results both in regard to the physical and fiscal performance.
Project consultanty and design engineering organisations in the country
would need considerable strengthening in such disciplines and type of
projects where such consultancy organisations do not exist. Proper consultancy
organisations would need to be developed and, if necessary, financed in
the initial stages by the Government. The requisite expertise where it
is not available in the country could be drawn from amongst highly experienced
and motivated Indians abroad. In fact, such Indians who are abroad and
who are capable to set up consultancy organisations in India should be
encouraged by way of financial incentive and other measures.
8.4 While the problems of project preparation and execution in the sectors of industry, power, transport and the like are capable of being dealt with broadly within the present administrative structure i.e. through public sector organisations adopting the methods and practices suggested above, there is need for a major modification of the administrative arrangements for the implementation of rural development and employment programmes. It will be necessary to identify the deficiencies encountered in different States and areas and take corrective action to strengthen the arrangements. Some broad areas of action in this respect are indicated below:
8.5 Detailed micro-level planning of manpower development and employment generation, to start with at the district level, has been suggested. The District Manpower Planning and Employment Generation Councils will be effective in discharging their mandate only if adequate professional back-up for making a realistic assessment of the opportunities for salaries, wage and self-employment is available. The cost-retum-risk structure of self-employment enterprises will have to be carefully worked out and individual and group self-employment promoted. The Employment Exchanges in the district will have to provide the necessary data input and all the professional and credit institutions in the area will have to be harnessed in finding a meaningful solution to the problem of unemployment both among the educated and illiterate. This will call for non-formal staffing patterns involving the employment of part or full-time consultants drawn from academic and voluntary organisations, and other appropriate agencies in the district. The proliferation of formal staff should be kept to the minimum and local people employed to the maximum possible extent in the creation and utilisation of assets of value to the local community.
8.6 The rural development programme during fie Sixth Plan period will cover all the blocks of the country so that every block can development potential for growth according to the genius and efforts of the people and the resources of the block. The 1RDP programme envisages a uusehold approach to the alleviation of poverty. This will involve a considerable restructuring of input delivery systems, The "Training and Visit system'1 of extension already introduced in agriculture provides a methodology for organising visits by extension personnal to all families in the area at least once in a fortnight and for arranging for the timely supply . the needed inputs. Similarly, credit-cum-input supply means can help the economically weaker sections of the rural community to get credit in the from of the inputs for which the credit is intended without bureaucratic delays. Economic emancipation the ramiiy, education of children and the voluntary ...loption of the small family norm are the three prinicipal components of the household centred poverty alleviation strategy. This calls for horizontal coordination among the agencies dealing with agriculture and village industries, education and other min'mum needs, health and family welfare. The block level administration will have to be so structured that the desired degree of horizontal coordination is achieved. Obviously, this task is a difficult one; 'brtunately however, the necessary infrastructure for successfully implementing this programme already exists. What is needed is a determined effort to put all the pieces together and to measure the progress made in rural development, among other things, by the extent of reduction in poverty and in the drain of resources from the village to the city.
8.7 Organisations of relevant services which would help small and marginal farmers and sharecroppers to derive economic benefits from new technology and diversification of farm income through mixed farming, agro-industries and small scale industries are two of the major thrusts of the agricultural Plan. The effective implementation of this programme will call for greater efforts in the field of scientific land and water use planning and in linking production with processing, storage and marketing. Improved management through a flood of cash and non-cash inputs will have to be achieved. Both internal and external markets will have to be properly served through well-planned linkages be^een co-operative marketing federations, Civil Supplies Corporations and 'foreign trade agencies. Structured linkages involving forward planning will have to be developed among the concerned agencies. Scientific management of agriculture will require a highly orchestrated effort in policy formulation and implementation on a part of the agencies concerned with the development of packages of technology, services and public policies. Both at the Siate and national levels, this aspect will have to receive attention if the desired growth rates in agricultural production and exports are to be achieved.
8.8 The maximisation of production and income from every available litre of water will be of the important objectives of the Plan. This Will call for detailed attention to on-farm managsmen of water jointly by the farmers in the cosnmand; are of an irrigation project and the project authorities. Command area management in irrigated areas, watershed management in unirrigated areas and catchment area management in the catchments of major river systems will all have to be designed in such a manner that the people concerned and the administration can work together as partners in elevating and stabilising yields without damage to the eco-system.
Small and Village Industries
Next to agriculture, the small and village industries sector provides
the major avenue of employment in rural and semi-urban areas. The management
of the various enterprises in this sector through detailed attention to
(a) the supply of raw material in adequate quantity and of proper quality,
(b) design improvement on the basis of analysis of preferences of consumers
both in the home and foreign markets, (c) skill upgradation, (d) energy
supply and (e) producer-oriented marketing will all demand a much greater
management and organisational input into this sector than hitherto. In
this sector also, extension and training methods based on the T &
V system could be introduced. This sector in particular will provide opportunities
for group self-employment and for home employment for women and will hence
be vital for improving' the income of families without land and/or livestock
8.10 Since she special Central assistance has been introduced for the first time. concerted efforts will be needed for preparing worthwhile projects. The Development departments and the Scheduled Caste Development Corporations need to work closely. Unless the requisite degree of co-ordinated effort can be generated, it will be difficult to fulfil the objectives of the Special Component Plan.
8.11 Several authorities have adversely commented on the introduction of a complex system of administration and new laws and rules for tribal society which was formerly used to a very simple administration. The present distinction made between regulatory and developmental administration has led to a multiplicity of authorities with whom they have to deal and causes confusion and mistrust among them. These activities need to be combined and brought within the purview of the Integrated Tribal Development Projects (ITDP) and extended to the village level. The Project Administrator, ITDP should combine in himself the quasi-judicial and revenue powers of an additional District Magistrate and the Additional Collector. The relationship between the Block and the ITDP should be clear with the Project Administration having full control over the Block Development Officer, the Block- should be an integral pan of the command chair which may be Statc-Division-District-ITDP-Block-Gram Panchayat-Village. The Public Distribution System should function through LAMPS (Large Area Multipurpose Cooperatives) organised at the village market level and under the supervision and control of the Project Administration. Other appropriate devices like the organisation of mobile fair price shops operating both on a cash and barter basis will have to be introduced to prevent the tribal from being exploited by the traditional market system.
8.12 The organisational framework of anti-poverty programme calls for careful planning on the basis of the socio-cultural and socio-economic features of e^ch area. If greater decentralisation is to be achieved so that programmes are made responsive to local problems, needs and potentials, district and block level implementing agencies will have to be given much greater flexibility. Greater use of such institutional devices as registered societies or corporations at the district level offer a means of accomplishing this. These agencies should be given greater freedom to reallocate funds- in accordance with local priorities and even to innovate new programmes as long as these subserve objectives already agreed upon. Greater flexibility in recruitment will also be required so as to facilitate the induction not only of short-term consultants for specific tasks but of young professionals including social scientists keen to participate in rural development. This will serve to strengthen the analytical capabilities of rural development agencies, an area they tend to be weak at present. The effective organisation of a Rural Resource Corps consisting of professionally qualified youth will also help to bridge the growing-gap between professionals in the modern, mostly urban, and the rural sector. The governing body of these agencies could serve as a forum for the direct representation of target group beneficiaries. Such representation will help to prevent the frustration of the distributional objectives of these programmes. The representation of local credit, educational and voluntary agencies on these bodies would facilitate coordination and encourage wider public participation.
8.13 It should be recognised that anti-poverty programmes need to be projectised to the extent possible. This will facilitate appraisal, phasing, coordination, monitoring and all the other components of successful programme management and implementation. Thus it is not enough to distribute milch cattle without simultaneously organising mar-ktting, providing health cover and artificial insemination services, promoting fodder cultivation and organising fodder and feed banks. Project appraisal techniques, network and survey methods arc just a few examples of tools and techniques that need to be simplified in a responsible manner so that they can be placed within the reach of district level planners and managers. They need to be made relevant to the day-to-day experience of district level personnel and to the type of project planning and management tasks our rural development will increasingly throw up. All this calls for a systematic and comprehensive programme of training of district level planners and managers, a task which State Planning machinery and research institutions could undertake.
8.14 However, the new anti-poverty programme will also place new demands on the patience, persistence and skills of our grassroot development functionaries as they reach out to target group families. who have by and large remained untouched by development programmes so far. In order to elicit the required degree of dedication and effort, renewed attention will have to be paid to questions of motivation, morale and orientation of the extension services, which have undergone a decline isince the earlier days of the community development programme. Attention will have to be paid in particular to inculcating a greater degree of honesty in appraising achievements and identifying problems, and in developing a new culture of openness in communication between different levels of the development hierachy. Only then arc we likely to ensure the necessary feedback required to make programmes practical, productive and truly responsive to the needs of the poor.
8.15 As already stated, it will be necessary to make arrangements for horizontal linkages at the block level. The task of planning and implementation for development programmes at the district level is acquiring greater complexity. It will be necessary therefore to strengthen the district level administration by the appointment of District Development Officers who should have complete authority and responsibility with respect to development work and should enjoy the same rank and status as the District Magistrate/Collector. Some State Governments have already acted in this direction and there is need to adopt this practice all over the country. The DDO's must have professional expertise and his continuity should not be disturbed at least during a plan period, if found to be effective and dedicated.
MONITORING OF IMPLEMENTATION
8.16 Adequate organisation and systems at present do not exist for monitoring and evaluation of plan projects and programmes at different levels. At the Central level, monitoring systems have been established and are in operation in respect of projects in cert.aia key sectors only like chemicals and fertilisers, steel, petroleum, coal, power and irrigation. For other sectors there is need to develop organised monitoring arrangements. Major public sector undertakings of the Cental Government have their own monitoring systems. For projects and programmes within the jurisdiction of the State Governments, monitoring systems for use at the Central level have been designed for certain sectors like trib;al development, development of backward classes, primary and adult education and water supply.
8.17 The implementation of the plan both by the State Governments, as well as the Central Ministries would need to be effectively monitored with a view to ensuring that for each scheme various targets relating to time and cost, production of goods and services, social and economic benefits relating to the individual projects in the industrial, agricultural, education, irrigation, family planning, health or any other sector of the economy are achieved.
Implementation of the Annual Plans has to be very effective, and for this
task, various Departments concerned in the State Governments, State Planning
agencies, Ministries concerned at the Centre as well as the Planning Commission
will have to be strongly geared. It would be desirable to have a report
every six months with regard to the implementation of the State Plans,
as also the Plans of various Ministries at the Centre. This report should
be drawn up by the above groups with regard to the schemes/projects etc.
concerning them, and these could be examined by the Planning Commission.
8.20 The State Planning machinery would need to be strengthened in the areas where deficiencies exist with regard to their role in supervising project formulations, drawing up of the Plans, and also the monitoring and implementation of the Plan projects. It would be desirable that the State Planning agencies co-ordinate effectively with the Planning Commission in respect of formulation of the Five Year Plans, as well as the implementation of the Plans.
8.21 Planning at the local level has an important role to play in investment decisions in agriculture, minor irrigation, animal husbandry, fisheries, marketing and processing, cottage and small scale industries, "local infra-structure and social services including water supply, housing, health, education, sanitation and lo;al transport. During the Sixth Plan, planning at tile block level will be further strengthen-e.i. The programmes wiil be made are;, specific at the grass root level based on local endo.vments and potential for growth and fuller employment. It is proposed to formulate comprehensive block level plans and identify programmes for development of the area which aim at making full use of local endowments. The object of these plans will be to integrate various programmes for optimal utilisation of local endowments with plan objectives and local needs.
The block level plans would need to be in harmony with the District and
State Plans. The investment decisions at the local level would need to
take into account the effects of Central/State Plans in that area and
of neighbouring localities. The block is intended to be the primary area
for local planning. As further experience is gained on the nature of local
resources and socio-economic factors, programmes will be refined through
local planning. Area specific development programmes will help deal with
the problems of regional imbalances and intra-regional variations. The
area level planning project would, however, require specific skills and
manpower resources and considerable delegation of powers to area planning
bodies within a framework of guidelines formulated at the State level.
The Central scheme for assisting the States for strengthening their planning
machinery would be continued during the Plan period. Other State level
agencies for promot-i-ng location-specific research and action plans should
include State Councils of Science and Technology and of Environmental
Protection. The State Land Use Boards should become effective.
8.24 The institutional mechanism for this purpose will need to be adapted to changing requirements. The Panchayati Raj institutions should be strengthened in order to become institutions of democratic management of rural development both at the district and block levels. Some State Governments have already established systems where at the district level the development work is entrusted to an officer of the rank of the district magistrate and who acts as the chief executive of the Zila Parishad. The district and block level representative institutions will, however, have to give adequate voice in their affairs to the weaker sections of the society who are the major beneficiaries of the programmes ol development. The welfare of women and their economic emancipation should receive special attention.
Special emphasis would need to be placed on involving the youth. More
imaginative ways will need to be devised to tap the potential and idealism
of the youth for constructive action. For instance, while pursuing household
approach to poverty elimination, it would be possible to induce active
participation of the youth. Similarly it would be desirable to encourage
villagers to obtain energy (from decentralised sources) as well as plant
nutrients from organic and biological sources in a sustained manner and
partially to solve the problems of rural unemployment and under-employment.
Involvement of people for this purpose will be achieved by persuasion,
mass education, consultation, demonstration and by assisting peoples'
own organisations for development. Student organisations like NSS and
NCC and non-student youth organisations like Yuvak Mandals and Nehru Yuvak
Kendras should be assigned specific tasks in each block.
8.26 Personnel policies require careful review at all levels so as to bring about a proper match between job requirements and the competence and dedication of the personnel employed for implementation. In this context, personnel policies relating to staff posted in tribal, hill and backward regions require attention so that competent staff can be attracted and retained in such regions. Personnel policies should also provide for getting specific jobs done in such areas through individual and institutional consultations and through part-time employment of local people. For developing special institutions in neglected regions like agricultural, medical, engineering colleges, etc. consortia of Universities with commitment to seconding competent staff members for 2 or 3 years or until locally trained staff become available, will have to be formed. The aim should be to maximise the benefits from existing institutions for accelerating the development of backward areas. Another key area in personnel policies is the need for merit promotion systems, which can help to retain persons doing good work in the same job. Considerable mobility takes place among professionals just for the sake of salary improvement. Conversely, those who are misfits in key positions should be shifted before irrepairable damage is done to the programme. While it is difficult to build good enterprises and organisations, they can be destroyed in no time by ineffective or corrupt management. Personnel policies should not be sorigid as to impair project implementation. Decentralisation of powers down the line will also have to be insisted upon if a sense of identification is to be fostered in all staff members.
The Five Year Plans have provided for considerable investments in the
rural, tribal and other neglected areas. There were, however, lags in
the utilisation of plan outlays in these mainty because of lack of adequate
administrative framework. A major difficulty has been the disinclination
of government employees to be posted in those areas, due to lack of basic
amenities like housing, education, health and communication and in some
cases even security. Those posted tend to leave behind their families
in the urban areas where facilities are available and live alone in the
place of posting; inevitably the job suffers. Thus posts in these areas
either remain vacant for long periods or they are manned by unwilling
persons who do not give of their best. The fact is that the present personnel
policies do not provide adequate incentives for taking up postings in
rural and tribal areas. What is required is a package of monetary and
non-monetary incentives for attracting the right type of personnel in
the rural and tribal areas and some administrative restructuring. All
the rural and tribal areas do not lack the facilities uniformly and therefore
the incentives will have to be graded taking into account factors like
remoteness from urban centres, inaccessibility, unhealthy surroundings,
lack of residential accommodation, medical, educational and entertainment
facilities. A special group had made a number of recommendations with
particular reference to the needs of tribal and backward .areas and these
have been sent to the State Governments by the Home Ministry for implementation.
These recommendations could be made applicable to remote rural areas lacking
in housing and other facilities. Other incentives can also be provided
e.g., weightage for service rendered in rural and backward areas while
considering secretariat posting, rent-free accommodation, certain preferences
to wards of such employees i'n hostel accommodation in urban areas, additional
travel allowance combined with education of children and the like.
8.28 The Programme Evaluation Organisation which was set up in 1952, has been carrying out studies particularly of programmes affecting large sections of our population, such as small and marginal farmers, rural artisans, agricultural labourers, women and children. The feed-back from such evaluation studies is of crucial importance for mid-course corrections in the operational framework so that the desired objectives are achieved. Although, an evaluation machinery exists both at the Centre and i.n almost all the States, the need for improving the machinery so as to promote concurrent and continuing evaluation is much greater than what available resources permit. A, Committee on Review and Strengthening of Central and State level Evaluation Organisations has made recommendations of far-reaching importance in developing evaluation work. One of its recommendations is that the programmes which account for a major share of plan allotment of funds should be evaluated every year. During the Sixth Plan, efforts would be directed to strengthen the State as well as the Central level evaluation organisations and locate the areas in which joint evaluation studies should be conducted. Efforts would be strengthened during the Plan period to constantly and effectively use the findings of these evaluation studies in formulating the development projects. Full use will be made of the scope available for involving appropriate consultancy organisations in such work.
8.29 The strengthening of the evaluation organisation's at the Centre and in the States to a large extent would depend upon the training and skill formation of the personnel for evaluation of a variety of developmental projects. There is need for a suitable training startegy so that the right type of training may be imparted to improve the qualify of evaluation. There is ample scope, for example, for improvement in skills needed in methodological aspects such as designing, field work, tabulation, analysis, interpretation and reporting which are basic to an evaluation study. The evaluation personnel have been functionally categorised into three levels i.e., senior supervisory and junior levels and there is need for suitable tr.aining programmes for each of these categories.
8.30 As a follow up of the recommendations of the Committee, the Central Programme Evaluation Organisation has already organised four Regional Workshops for the senior level evaluation personnel and two training programmes for the middle level. During the Sixth Plan period, it is proposed to train all the evaluation personnel numbering about a thousand in the country; The strategy during the Sixth Plan would thus be to strengthen the evaluation capacity both qualitatively and quantitatively at the Centre as well as in the States.
The total outlay for strengthening of the Programme Evaluation Organisation
at the Centre including its training and activities would be Rs. 2 crores
during the Sixth Plan. In the States and Union Territories also, some
outlay has been proposed to strengthen iheir evaluation machinery during
the Sixth Plan period.
8.33 Timely and reliable statistics are a basic prerequisite for effective planning. Although, the statistical system in India has made strides since the inception of planning in the country, it has not always been possible for the statistical system to keep pace with the ever-growing requirements in in any areas. A recent review has revealed that the data base is still rather weak in some of the important sectors and the information at present is not detailed enough for undertaking purposeful action in respect of such vital issues as price control, removal of poverty, eradication of unemployment, reduction of social and economic disparities, etc. There is also an urgent need for greater vigilance in maintenance of accepted standards in collection, processing and dissemination of statistics.
8.34 The development plans for the system have generally been guided by the inadequacies in the data base of the economy as identified by the. Data Improvement Committees, National Commission on Agriculture, Committee on Regional Accounts, seminars organised by the Indian Econometric Society, National Seminar on Social Statistics and the Conference of Centra] and State Statistical Organisations. A Committee set up by the Government of India in July 1979 to review the National Statistical System has made a number of recommendations to strengthen the existing statistical system and re-structure it so that it could meet adequately the requirements of planning and decision making. During the Sixth Plan (198085) efforts will be made to implement the recommendations of this Committee after careful consideration.
8.35 In the Central sector, the major tasks to which attention will be given are conduct of economic census and follow-up surveys for collecting vital information pertaining to unorganised segment of the non-agricultural sector, survey of urban non-manual employees, providing estimates of national sample surveys at regional and lower levels, increasing the sample size of sample registration system with a view to providing reliable estimates of vital rates at the State level, elec^onic processing of data collected under various censuses and national sample surveys, setting up a data bank etc. Programmes will also be undertaken to develop the methodology for collection of data on wholesale and retail trade and improve the statistics of services sectors. The State Governments will undertake development programmes aimed at strengthening the statistical machinery at lower levels, collection of data on prices and wholesale trade. training of statistical personnel and setting up of data banks etc.
An allocation of Rs. 95.44 crores has been made under the head 'Other
social surveys' for the development of a sound date base at various levels
to provide a more scientific basis for plan formulation and evaluation.
Allocation for development of statistics have also been provided under
the respective sectoral heads, e.g., for Agricultural Statistics, under
The training programmes for personnel engaged in development activities
would be further strengthened during the plan period. The Central scheme,
initiated in 1976-77 for Government and project personnel would be continued
during the Sixth Piau period with a provision of Rs. 2.28 crores.
8.38 The Sixth Plan aims at a higher growth rate ia ail sectors of the economy. This is both possible and essential in the national interest. Improved management of ail projects, appropriate reorganisation of organisations dealing with anti-poverty programmes and diversification of employment opportunities in rural areas will have to be achieved speedily, if the social and economic objectives of the Plan are to be realised.
8.39 A national efficiency drive is the need of the hour. Attention to detail in project formulation and implementation and promotion of a work culture where there is pride in performance are the twin instruments of achieving efficiency. This is the task to which everyone involved in implementing the Si.xth Plan should give utmost attention.
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