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9.180 Pepper is the most important spice produced and exported from India. Considering that India's share in the international trade in pepper has been about 25 per cent, our export requirement by 1985 will be about 38,000 tonnes. The internal consumption is at present nearly 10,000 tonnes and this may rise to 12,000 tonmes by 1984-85. Thus. the total requirement of pepper by the end of Sixth Plan period will be about 50.000 tonnes.
9,181 With a view to introducing the high yielding hybrid pepper into large scale cultivation a programme for multiplication and distribution of this variety was taken up during the Fifth Plan period as a centrally sponsored scheme. Progeny gardens were established in the important pepper growing States and about 30 lakh cuttings were produced and distributed. Another programme implemented during the Fifth Plan period was organising of field demonstrations for popularising the hybrid pepper. Also a package programme for promoting intensive cultivation was undertaken in Kerala. 'While a few varieties including the hybrid have been identified as high yiciders, the existing nurseries are inadequate to meet me requirement of planting materials. It is, therefore, necessary to take urgent steps to promote adoption of intensive cultivation practices including re-planting and gap filling with high yielding varieties.
9.182 The strategy for development of pepper under the Sixth Plan would aim at: (i) large sc^ale multiplication and distribution of planting materials of high yielding varieties by establishing Central nurseries; (ii) implementation of a package programme for promoting intensive cultivation practices including replanting and gap filling in the existing areas; and (iii) extension of cultivation in traditional as well as non-traditional areas with stress on intercropping in coconut, arecanut and coffee plantations.
9.183 Minor spices are ginger, turmeric, chillies, coriander, cumin, fennel, fenugreek, celery, etc. They are mostly consumed within the country, but thsy also have some potential for export. Clove and nutmeg also deserve attention because in their case the existing production is insufficient to meet the internal demand and. therefore, imports are, at times, to be nijade to make up the deficiency. Lack of planting materials of high yielding varieties has been the major constraint in respect of ginger, turmeric and chillies. la case of Other minor spices, the high yielding vane-lies which have been identified have not become popular with the farmers mainly due to inadequate availability of seeds. These problems would receive necessary attention.
9.184 Targets of production of some important spices to be attained by the end of Sixth Plan period are given in the following table:
Table 9.11 Targets of Production of gome important Spice*
efforts have to be made to achieve these
9.185 Production of tea has increased from 285 million kg. in 1950-51 to 556 million kg. in 1977-78. For the year 1979-80, it is expected to be lower at 546 million kg. as against the likely level ot 570' million kg. in the preceding year, largely due to drought in north eastern region. Internal consumption of tea has been rising from 73 million kg. in 1950-51 to 338 million kg. in 1979-80.
9.186 The Sixth Plan aims at a target of 705 million kg. of production, 438 million kg. of consumption and 260 million kg. of export, showing a growth rate of about 5 per cent. The production target is to be achieved through adoption of long, medium and short term measures. Among the long-term measures are included new plantings, repiantings and replacement plantings. The medium term measures include rejuvenation and infilling of vacancies. Improved cultural practices in the existing plantations and creation of drainage and irrigation facilities are expected to show results over a short term period. In regard to new plantings, the Board has done an assessment regarding the availability of land. Based on this assessment a total area of 52,250 hectares in North India and 15,350 hectares in South 'India would be available for new plantings. The proposal is to utilise 25,000 hectares during the Sixth Plan period at the rate of 5,000 hectares per year. As tea is a long gestation crop, it will take 3 to 4 years for a newly planted area to come into economic bearing and therefore extension plantings undertaken durino the Sixth Plan period will show results in the next plan period. As for replanting, replacement, rejuvenation, etc. coverage during the Sixth Plan period is likely to be of the same order, i.e., 5000 hectares per year.
9.187 It is ialso proposed to aim at providing a break through for tea culture in the non-traditional areas, namely, Manipur, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Anmachal Pradesh, Nagaland and Sikkim. Preliminary surveys on availability of land suitable for tea cultivation in these areas have alre,ady been undertaken in some parts and are also underway in others. The Tea Board proposes to cover an area of 2600 hectares under tea in these States during the Sixth Plan period. Initiative for bringing larger area under tea cultivation will have to come from the concerned States. Establishment of Development Corporations has been suggested as the means to this end.
9.188 Production of coffee has increased from 18,890 tonnes in 1950-51 to 125,000 tonnes in 1977-78. On an average annual production during the Fourth Plan period was 84,000 tonnes and during the Fifth Plan period it rose to 100,000 tonnes. Despite fluctuation in production and consequential constraint on marketing, adequate supplies to the internal market have been maintained, without affecting the export market. Export of coffee was 49,960 tonnes in 1973-74, rising to 61,954 tonnes in 1978-79.
9.189 The total demand for coffee in 1984-85 is estimated at 152,100 tonnes, consisting of internal consumption of 58,000 tonnes at the growth rate of 3 per cent per annum^ and export requirement of 94,100 tonnes on the basis of 5.5 per cent annual growth. The target of production for the Sixth Plan is visualised at 15^,450 tonnes. The programme for increased production envisaged in the Sixth Plan will be achieved through (i) further increasing the existing productivity of the small grower sector and low yielding pockets in the large holdings through various extension and developmental measures; and (ii) extension of coffee area in traditional and non-traditional States including the north eastern region. In order to cope up with the increased production and to ensure efficient marketing of the commodity, steps will be taken to strengthen further marketing and promotional infrastructure. The processing and storage capacity will also 'be suitably strengthened.
9.190 Coffee, being a perennial plantation crop involving a gestation period of five years before reaching the production stage, the Coffee Board has prepared a long-term expansion programme to meet the demands for coffee ^y the turn of the century. The perspective plan envisages expansion of area under coffee to the extent of 130,000 hectares by 1993-94, of which 72,000 hectares would be in the non-traditional States and the balance of 58,000 hectares in the traditional States. Action to implement this perspective plan should be initiated and taken into consideration in executing the programme for Sixth Plan.
9.191 An intensive rubber production drive was launched by the Rubber Board in October, 1978 to step up the production from the existing plantations through adoption of appropriate technology. The extensive village level campaign was mounted to transfer the technology from the research centres to the plantations. Further, a scheme for the new planting of rubber in small holding sector was taken up in 1979 for the first time and the target of planting 4000 hectares is expected to be fully achieved. Another campaign for training tappers/ small holders with a view to rectifying the defects in the existing tapping system and thus to improve the productivity of small holders has been initiated during 1980.
9.192 Research activities have been intensified. Clones with high production potential have been evolved and good planting materials have also been introduced from different rubber growing countries and suitable ones released for planting. Poly-clonal seed gardens have been established for producing superior quality hybrid seeds. Recently, a Regional Research Centre has been established in Tripura to exploit the potential for development of rubber in the nort -eastern region. Production target to be achieved under the Sixth Plan is 200,000 tonnes as against the projected demand of 230,000 tonnes.
9.193 The total area under cardamom in India is around 3,000 hectares, spread over Kerala (59 percent), Kamataka (31 per cent) and Tamil Nadu (10 per cent). Of this, about 70,000 hectares is estimated to be at the yielding stage on account of the process of replantation of uneconomic areas. While no substantial increase in the area under cardamom is contemplated, the emphasis for increasing its production would be through intensive cultivation.
9.194 Production of cardamom has increased from 2900 tonnes in 1974-75 to 4000 toanes in 1978-79. The per hectare yield has also shown an increase from 42 kg. in 1974-75 to 58 kg. in 1978-79. Research and development activities of the Cardamom Board have played an important role in increasing production of cardamom. Particular mention may be made of supply of high yielding planting material, disease control programme, credit facilities for re-^ planting and irrigation, extension and advisory services.
The Sixth Plan aims at a target of 5500 tonnes with the per hectre yield
of 79 kg. As internal consumption of cardamom is more or less stable,
any increase in production will enable more exports especially in the
context of world demand outstripping world supply. Hence concurrent with
the increase in production, a higher quantum of exports is envisaged.
However, keeping in view the production programme in other countries in
the coming years, aggressive export promotion me,asures coupled with efforts
for finding new markets and new end-uses for cardamom are required. Export
target of 4100 tonnes is visualised against the production of 5500 tonnes
Field crops and tree crops are the primary land based activities in agriculture.
However, there are certain other activities like animal husbandry, fishery
and forestry which do not involve the use of cultivable land except in
a limited way. These activities contribute substantially to rural economy
particularly of the weaker sections and the Sixth Plan lays great stress
on them. In what follows programmes . for these sectors allied to agriculture
9.198 Growing in the modem poultry farming in India was given a start with the initiation of intensive poultry production programme. During the early years, five regional central poultry breeding farms and a number of State poultry farms were established for the production and distribution of superior poultry birds for breeding and prodisciion purposes. The private entrepreneurs were also encouraged to set up franchise hatcheries in collaboration with poultry breeding organisations abroad. Intensive egg and poultry production-cMW-marketing projects were started in different States around urban markets. Scientific poultry breeding programme for evolving genetically superior strains of birds and production of commercial high producing chicks was undertaken both at the Central and State Government farms and under the ICAR's all-India coordinated research projects on poultry. One major development was the commencement of research and development in poultry breeding through private hatcheries using purelines imported from abroad. These steps provided a beginning to achieve the objective of attaining self-sufficiency in chick production in the country. As a result of these measures the annual egg production increased from 2,880 million in 1960-61 to 12,320 million in 1979-80.
9.199 There were 1450 veterinary hospitals and dispensaries before the beginning of the First Five Year Plan. As many as 10,890 veterinary hospitals and dispensaries were added during the successive Five Year Plan periods, reaching a total of 12,340 hospitals and dispensaries by the end of 1979-80.
9.200 For development of ducks a Central Duck Breeding Farm at Hesserghatta and a Regional Duck Breeding Farm in the north-eastern region were established. In order to support programmes for increasing the productivity of indigenous sheep, one large Central Sheep breeding farm at Hissar and eight large sheep breeding farms in different states were set up for producing and distributing purebred and crossbred rams. For promoting sheep and wool production and marketing to benefit the sheep farmers state level organisations have been set up in Rajasthan and Gujarat.
9.201 Special livestock production projects through small and marpinal farmers and agricultural labourers were formulated based on the recommendations of the National Commission on Agriculture. Under this programme, 99 projects for subsidised rearinf of crossbred heifer calves, 68 poultry production projects. 51 sheep production project's and 50 pi? production projects were taken up in different States Minikit programme for distribution of fodder seeds to the farmers was also initiated.
9.202 The Operation Flood-1 project launched in 1970 was continued and a sum of Rs. 112.60 crores was generated upto the end of March, 1980 and the total average daily throughput in the expanded and the new dairi.es in the four metropolitan cities reached a level of 20.16 lakhs litres. Capacity has been created at feeder balancing dairies for handling about 30.00 lakh litres of raw milk a day. A new dairy development project for milk production and marketing on the lines of Operation Flood-1 was started in Sikkim. Three integrated cattle-cum-dairy development projects were started in the States of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Kamataka. Under these projects a large number of primary milk producers societies and district dairy unions have been started on Anand Pattern. In the project areas existing dairy plants were expanded and new dairies and cattle feed mixing plants were started. Achievements in respect of important programmes during 1960-61 to 1979-80 aie given in the table below:-
Table 9.12 Livestock products and Proerammes Targets and Achievments
9.203 Livestock production and dairying programmes have to be viewed as an effective instrument ot social change through supplementing the income and providing employment to weaker sections of people in the rural areas. Special emphasis will be laid on projects for increasing the productivity of various species of livestock through genetic improvement and better health cover. Adequate attention will be given to feed and fodder production integrating these into mixed farming systems, crop rotation and agro-forestry programmes. One other important consideration will be the organisation of producer oriented cooperative marketing systems. Animal Husbandry programmes will form ain integral part of dry fanning systems and area development projects intended for drought prone and desert areas, hillv areas and tribal development. Special attention has to be given to preservation and rehabilitation of species of animals like camels in Rajasthan and yaks and mithuns in ths fanners' economy in some of the north eastern states. Attention will be given to make available reliable and timely livestock statistics in order to. facilitate taking decisions in perspective planning as also for implementation, monitoring and evaluation of projects on Animal Husbandry and Dairying.
Targets of twestock Production
9.204 Against the base level production of 30.00 million tonnes of milk estimated in 1979-80, it is proposed to reach by the end of Sixth Plan an annual production level of 38.00 million tonnes, implying a growth rate of 4.8 per cent. The target for annua! egg production by 1984-85 would be 16,300 million. An additional production of 5 million Kg. of wool would be aimed at, taking the total production of wool to 39.00 million Kg. by 1984-85. The projected targets of livestock products are given in the table below:
Table 9.13 Targets of production of Livestock products
Note :State-wise details given in Annexure 9.5
9.205 Catile and buffalo development: For increasing the productivity of cattle and buffaloes, concerted efforts will be made to contain the increase in the population of cows and she buffaloes and to change the structure of these populations by replacing nondescript local stock by high producing cows of indigenous breeds, crossbred cows and improved buffaloes. For bringing out such a change, each State should lay down definite breeding policies. The aim will be to bring at least 10 million cows under cross-breeding programme to raise the number of crossbred cows from 3 million in 1979-80 to about 8 million and increasingly introduce the use oi frozen semen technology lor artificial insemination in cows and she buffaloes. This programme will be continued) started in all areas covered by intensive cattle development projects. Operation Flood Project, integrated cattle-cum-dairy-development projects and other cattle development and dairying programmes in the States.
9.206 As crossbred bullocks have been found quite useful for work compared to the vast majority of non-descript type of bullocks, promotion of use of cross bred bullocks for work through demonstration and extension methods would be built into the cross-breading protects. Programmes for development of Important indigenous breeds of cattle would also continue. In all these programmes, emphasis will be laid on progeny testing of bulls.
9.207 Buffaloes constituting about one third of the total bovine milch stock will continue to remain important dairy animals in most parts of the country Therefore, research and development programmes on buffaloes v/ould receive increasing attention Efforts will be made to identify, pool and multiply superior buffalo germplasm through establishment of large bufflao farms. Research will be intensified to evolve improved technology for larger use of frozen buffalo semen in artificial insemination at the field level. A new Institute for research in buffaloes will be established and research work under the coordinated project on buffaloes will be intensified with a view to solving problems relating to production, reproduction in buffaloes, nutrition in buffaloes, economic production of buffalo meat, etc.
9.208 Poultry Development: Poultry farming practices have been more or less well established on scientific and organised basis and the future emphasis will be on promoting poultry production mainly through weaker sections of people and to bring about qualitative improvement in the inputs and services required for poultry farming. In view of the policy to discontinue import of grand parent stock, research and development will be intensified both in the private and public sectors for evolving high yielding strains and lines within the country. Setting up of new pureline breeding farms would be encouraged.
9.209 Production of poultry meat through broiler industry has been accelerated in the recent past. Broiler strains capable of attaining 1200 gm. m 8 wesks and 1500 gm. in 10 weeks have been evolved. Development of new lines of broilers would be taken up both in the public and private sectors. The requirement of broiler chicks is expected to increase to a level of about 35 million by 1984-85.
9.210 Marketing of eggs and poultry both for in ternal demand and for export would be channelised through the organised sector. Major thrust in this direction would be the organisation of primary producers cooperative societies/unions and organisation of poultry corporation/federation at state level. NAFED would be assisted to continue its efforts to take a commanding share of marketing of eggs and poultry at regional and national levels and in exports. An aggressive consumer education programme will form a major component of market promotion activity. Market surveys within the country and abroad will be conducted from time to time.
9.211 Duck development will be intensified in potential areas, particularly in the north eastern states. Scientific rearing and breeding of ducks will be taken up in large duck farms and crossbreeding of ducks will be introduced in rural areas for enhancing productivity in respect of both eggs and meat.
9.212 Sheep and Wool Development: The gap between the availability and requirement of wool ror all the textile sectors, viz., worsted yam, carpet manufacture and khadi and woollen manufacture continues to remain. The present trends indicate large export potential for carpets. There is good export market for live sheep for mutton. There is acute shortage of mutton for internal consumption with a consequent upward trend in prices. Therefore, there is immediate need for launching a massive programme of improvement in sheep for wool and mutton. It is proposed to implement intensive crossbreeding programmes with suitable exotic fine or medium wool (dual type) breeds in different States through the establishment strengthening of large scale sheep breeding farms and setting up of additional intensive sheep development projects. To augment mutton production, extensive crossbreeding with breeds like Cor-riedale and special efforts to increase the number and quality of indigenous mutton type sheep would be organised through co-operatives of sheep breeders at the district level and Wool BoardslCorporations at the State level.
9.213 The approach to carpet wool sheep improvement in the Sixth Plan would have two objectives, viz.i to improve quality and to increase quantity of the fleeces by adopting selective breeding among the carpet wool breeds. Selective breeding of goats of indigenous breeds and crossbreeding with exotic dairy breeds to get types which could be stall-fed will be undertaken. Pelt and fur production through introduction of Karakul sheep, and Pashmiaa goats and Angora rabbits would be promoted in suitable areas.
9.214 Other livestock: Crossbreeding in pigs would be concentrated around bacon factories, urban markets and tribal areas. Intensive pig breeding-cum-marketing schemes would be taken up in the North Eastern States which are high consumption and high price areas for pork. Horse breeding farms and stud centres would be set up for development of horses and ponies for sport and transport. For improving the economy of the desert areas, camel development would be organised through camel breeding farms, camel stud centres and organisation of breeders cooperatives. Programmes will be taken up for the preservation and multiplication of yaks and mithuns in the eastern Himalayan region. Studies will be undertaken on the possibilities of domestic rearing and crossbreeding with these species for work, milk and meat purposes.
9.215 Meat Processing: There is necessity tor development of meat industry in the country mainly for internal consumption and to some extent for export. For the production, processing and marketing ol wholesome meat and effective utilisation of animal by-products, modernisation and improvement of slaughter houses in the major cities would be taken up. A separate organisation would be developed for promoting and regulating domestic production, internal marketing and export of meat and meat products.
9.216 Feed and Fodder Development: Feeds and fodder constitute 60 to 70 per cent of the cost of production of various livestock products. The area under fodder crops has remained more or less static during the \ast one or two decades. The emphasis will continue on the promotion of fodder production as an integral part of crop husbandry so that a mixed farming system is promoted, particularly on the small land holdings. An effective farmer-oriented extension programme will be taken up by the State Governments for evolving and popularising high yielding varieties of fodder crops, introduction or fodder crops, especially leguminous fodders in existing crop rotations. Production and distribution of high quality fodder seeds will receive priority attention. Appropriate agencies will be assisted for production of breeder, foundation and certified seeds. Fodder seed production farms will be expanded and new ones established to augment production and supply of improved seeds. Development of extensive grasslands and creation of grass reserves would be taken up by the State Forest Departments. Under the social forestry programme, the Forest departments would allocate a fair share of the marginal lands and degraded forests for cultivation of fodder trees. Silvi-pastoral practices would also be introduced in suitable hilly areas. In arid and semi-arid regions, large blocks of land would be developed as rangelands for rotational yazing or livestock and for collection and storage of hay in fodder banks to be utilised in times of drought, famine and floods.
9.217 Efforts will be made for the increasing use of agro-industrial by-products and wastes in the manufacture of compounded feeds and research will be continued for the use of various unconventional feed ingredients for incorporation in compounded livestock and poultry feeds.
9.218 Proper collection and utilisation of carcasses of dead animals and slaughter house wastes for conversion into meat meal, bone meal, blood meal, etc. would be taken up in all areas, wherever such collections are economically feasible.
9.219 Animal Health Cover: Under the Rinderpest Eradication Scheme, the strategy will be to eliminate the residual foci of infection through intensive vaccination, surveillance of the disease and adoption of a stamping out policy. Programmes for control of diseases, like foot and mouth disease and contagious bovine pleuro pneumonia in cattle, Marek's and pul-lorum diseases in poultry, swine fever in pigs and rabies in dogs would receive special attention. Production of biologicals against existing and emerging diseases would be augmented. Animal health control system would be strengthened through establishment of diagnostic and investigation facilities, strengthening of biological products stations and establishment or quarantine stations at inter-state and international borders. A certification service to promote export of livestock and livestock products would be organised. Por providing prophylactic and curative treatment additional veterinary hospitals and dispensaries, polyclinics and mobile ambulatory clinics would be established. Disease free zones in respect of rinderpest and foot and mouth disease will be created in ftli; Southern most and Northern most regions of th; country on a pilot basis.
9.220 Dairy Development: The implementation of the Operation Flood-1 project and the other major schemes in the past have established the operational validity of in integrated approach to dairy development, encompassing production, collection, transport, processing and marketing of milk by all dairy development projects in the public and the cooperative sectors. Special emphasis will be given to provision of technical inputs and services for enhancing milk production in the miik sheds of all dairy projects. By and large, dairying will be organised through a two-tier or a three-tier system of functional cooperatives starting from producers' societies at the village level.
9.221 The integrated cattle-cum-dairy development projects being implemented on the lines of Operation Rood-! project in the States of Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka will be completed. The major programme in the dairy sector would be the Operation Flood-H project which is expected to cover practically all the States. This project would be implemented through a three-tier cooperative structure with a federation at the apex. Under the project, a national milk grid would be developed to cater to the milk supply of the four metropolitan cities and all towns having a population of one lakh and above. It is proposed to create milk processing and marketing facilities for 4.36 million litres per day in the four metropolitan cities and feeder balancing facilities in the rural areas for 20 million litres a day through the cluster federations. Other major works envisaged include developing aseptic long life milk system, establishment of a foot and mouth disease vaccine plant, introduction of bulk vending system, manpower development and consultation and management information services. These dairy programmes will provide economic benefits to about 10 million rural families. This coverage would be extended to 15 million families through other dairy projects, special livestock production projects and dairy cattle improvement schemes intended to help people in hill areas, tribal areas, backward classes, etc.
9.222 In the State Sector dairy development programmes will mainly be confined to completion of dairies under construction, creating additional facilities for increasing the throughput in the existing plants, training of personnel, assistance to dairy cooperatives and strengthening of dairy extension services in areas outside the Operation Flood-11 project. It is anticipated that the share of marketing of milk through the organised sector would be raised to 15 per cent.
9.223 So far, organised dairy schemes have concentrated mainly on handling of fluid milk. During the Sixth Plan period, attention will be given to manufacture and marketing of traditional milk products. This will assist milk producers in remote areas who cannot be linked easily to fluid milk market projects.
Insurance of livestock and poultry: One of the important steps to help
the farmers to improve their economy is to diversify the cropping system
so as to cover dairy and sheep husbandry, piggery and poultry farming.
Under the special programmes such as SFDA and IRD importance is given
to assist the small and marginal farmers and landless labourers in taking
up subsidiary occupations to improve their economic position. Since the
animals and birds reared by the farmers are susceptible to various diseases,
apart from providing adequate health cover to them, it is essential to
provide an insurance cover so as to protect the rural people from losses
sustained due to livestock mortality. From 1974, cattle insurance schemes
are being operated by the four subsidiaries of the General Insurance Corporation
of India. The cattle insurance scheme provides for indemnity in the event
of death of the insured animal due to accident and/ or disease. Permanent
total disability is also covered. Apart from milch animals, calves/heifers,
reared under the special programmes and ploughing bullocks are also provided
insurance cover now. In the special rural development programmes, the
Government of India subsidises the premium payable by the identified beneficiaries.
During the Sixth Plan period it is proposed to extend the coverage of
insurance to other livestock and poultry.
9.225 Fisheries development has made significant progress over the successive Five Year Plans. Fish production increased from 7.52 lakh tonnes in 1950-51 to about 23.36 lakh tonnes in 1979-80. The value of exports rose from Rs. 4.13 crores in 1961 to Rs. 263 crores in 1979-80. The production trend is indicated in the table below:
9.14 Trend of Fish Production
*Trend line estimate based on data from 1967-68 to 1978-79.
9.226 The Fifth Plan envisaged a considerable increase in fish production. However, fish production fell short of targets largely due to shortfalls in the introduction of large deep sea fishing vessels, production of fish seed, establishment of nursery areas and water areas brought under fish culture. Survey of marine fishery resources beyond 40 fathoms could not be conducted due to paucity of large vessels. However, steps were initiated for the acquisition et large and adequately equipped survey vessels from abroad and construction of similar vessels in Goa Shipyard. The Exploratory Fisheries project operated with 25 vessels from 12 bases in the East and West Coasts. An area of 2.8 lakh sq. kms. was surveyed.
9.227 There has been considerable progress in mechanisation in the fishing industry. During 1979-80, 16100 mechanised boats were in operation against 2161 in 1961. The construction of fishing harbours at major ports of Visakhapatnam, Roychowk and Cochin have been completed. The construction of the harbour in Madras is still in progress. In addition, about 70 small and self-contained harbours were completed by 1979-80. The fishing harbours so far completed would provide landing and berthing facilities for about 9000 mechanised boats and 150 deep sea and medium fishing vessels.
9.228 The commercial deep sea fishing fleet comprised of 55 purchased vessels and about 50 vessels operated on charter basis in collaboration with foreign agencies. In order to promote introduction of a larger number of fishing vessels by private entrepreneurs and State Corporations, a Trawler Development Fund was created to extend financial assistance. This programme envisaged both import of fishing vessels from abroad and construction indigenously. Financial assistance to State Fisheries Corporations in Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa was given for diversified fishing, processing and marketing.
9.229 Fifty Fish Farmers Development Agencies were set up during the Fifth Plan period to promote intensive aquaculture through fish farmers in selected districts. Before extending the scheme further, an evaluation of the project was undertaken by the National Council of Applied Economic Research. An integrated Inland Fisheries Project was finalised for implementation in selected areas in the States of West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. In order to establish the economic advantages of brackishwater fish farming, a pilot project was started in all the coastal States.
Policies and Objectives
9.230 The main thrust of fisheries development will be on augmentation of fish production both in inland and marine sectors. The evolution and promotion of relevant technology of production, processing and marketing both in regard to inland and marine fisheries would be the basic approach in order to ensure availability of fish for local consumption at reasonable prices and to promote export of prawns and high priced marine products.
9.231 The principal objectives of fisheries development programme will be: (i) to step up considerably fish production both in marine and inland sectors; (ii) to promote inland fish production on scientific basis through extension, education, training and provision of inputs with a view to increasing the productivity of water area*; (iii) to organise intensive surveys on marine fishery resources assessment and ensure optimum exploitation of marine resources through a judicious mix of traditional country boats, operators of mechanised boats ind deep-sea fishing vessels; (iv) to intensify efforts on processine, storage and transportation of fish, improve marketing, tap vast potential for export of fish and fish products; and (v) improve the socio-economic condition of fishermen.
9.232 In inland fisheries, special emphasis will be directed towards research efforts to maximise production and to follow it up with promotional programmes in the field to reduce the existing wide gap between yield potential and the actual farm pond production of fish. Consequent on the declaration of exclusive economic zone of 360 km from the coastline, special efforts to augment marine fisheries exploitation would be made. In addition, coastal fisheries exploitation, mart-culture and brackishwater fish farming would be given special attention in order to provide economic benefits to coastal fishing communities through a blend of culture and capture fisheries. Further, export marketing through production and test marketing of new fishery products prepared out of cheap and inexpensive fish will receive attention.
Target of fish production
9.233 There have been certain constraints in the introduction of large deep-sea fishing vessels, in implementation cf programmes for fish seed production and promotion of intensive inland aquaculture. Steps have already been initiated to solve these problems and it is anticipated that a higher rate of growth will be attained and maintained in fish production in the coming years. The table below gives the targets oŁ fish production and some selected input programmes.
Table 9-15 Targets offish production some selected input programmes
*Trend line estimates based on 1967-68 to 1978-79 data.
9.234 In marine fisheries, priority attention v/ill be given to organising a National Fishery Survey in the areas covered by the Exclusive Economic zone by strengthening the Exploratory Fishery Project and integrating its activities with other Institutions studying the marine environment. The programmes for assisting coastal fishermen using country crafts to improve their efficiency and economy through improvement in the design of boats and supply of modern gear material would be continued. Special emphasis will bs given to develop infrastructural facilities for improving the handling, storage, processing and transportation of fish catches in as many coastal fishing landing centres as possible. Mechanisation of boats by groups d traditional fishermen would be encouraged, particularly in the sectors having a low fishing intensity. Selective assistance would be extended for diversification of mechanised fishing boat operations in order to exploit sizeable pelagic and midwater resources identified along the eastern and western coasts. Measures will also be taken in regulating the operation of such boats through a system of compulsory registration and licensing of fishing vessels. A sizeable increase in the deep sea fishing fleet through incentives for purchase and chartering and judicious selection of such vessels in respect of size and type would be encouraged.
9.235 Alongwith the introduction of large number of mechanised boats and deep-sea fishing vessels for exploitation of marine resources, it would be necessary to protect the interests of the small boat owners, who mainly fish in coastal waters. Conflicts between small fishermen operating traditional fishing crafts, mechanised boat owners and the operators of large fishing vessels will be sought to be avoided through suitable legislative measures and delimitation of fishing zones for each type of fishing vessels.
9.236 Development of berthing and landing facilities for fishing vessels through improvement at the existing harbours and construction of new fishing harbours will be continued.
9.237 Inland Fisheries: Inspite of vast resources of culturable water areas available in the shape of ponds, tanks, lakes, bheels, swamps, estuaries, reservoirs, etc. and availability of unproved technology for intensive culture of fish, the level of production has not been adequate and there is a large gap between the potential and the actual yields. Considerable attention is needed for demonstration and extension of the technology on a very wide scale. These would include augmentation of fish seed, its availability of the right type and in the right season, education and training of technical personnel and fish farmers in farm techniques, promotion of aquaculture, composite fish-culture etc. Leasing of water areas owned by panchayats and State Departments on long term basis would be encouraged in order to ensure high productivity. An Inland Fisheries Project will be implemented in the States of West Bengal, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa. Similar programmes would also be taken up in suitable areas in the other States.
9.238 Brackishwater fish farming which has been identified as a potential source of augmenting the income of individual fishermen families and increasing production of prawns for exports would be considerably expanded and organised mainly as a cooperative enterprise of fishermen in these areas. The Pre-Invest-ment Survey of Fishing Harbours Project will be strengthened for survey, designing and preparation old project reports on brackishwater fish farms for the guidance of the State Governments.
9.239 Training and extension: Special attention will be given to training of personnel required to man the increasing fleet of mechanised boats and off-shore and deep-sea fishing vessels. The facilities available at the Centra] Institute of Fisheries, Nautical and Engineering Training and the fisbmg fleet with the Exploratory Fishery Project and with the private sector companies would be made use of for giving adequate sea-time training to candidates qualifying for the posts of skippers and engineers for fishing vessels. In order to meet the expanding demand for fishery scientists, technicians and operators, the training institutions catering to various levels of such personnel under the Central/ State Governments would be strengthened and expanded. Training of extension personnel will form part of the Inland Fishery Project. A target of one extension worker for every 100 ha. water area brought under fish culture has been proposed. This will facilitate adoption of training and visit system as in the case of agriculture. Extension organisations both for marine and inland fisheries development would be expanded in the States to promote adoption of modern technologies in marine and inland fish production. Training of fish farmers will receive special attention under the Fish Farmers Development Agency Programme.
Processing and Marketing: The organisation and efficient functioning of
Fisheries Corporations/ Cooperative Federations would be encouraged for
undertaking commercial and economic activities, such as fish seed production,
reservoir development, marine' fisheries exploitation and processing and
marketing of fish for internal consumption and for exports. The organization
of fisheries cooperatives would be promoted at the landing centres and
at inland fish production points for the storage processing, transport
and marketing of their fish catches, making use of financial assistance
from institutional financial sources. An All-India Marine and Inland Fish
Marketing Survey would be undertaken, which would cover all aspects of
inlan and fishery marketing and infrastructure and other requirements
for export promotion. A cold chain scheme link-ins major production centres
and internal market points would be taken up through public sector and
private sector enterprises.
9.241 The 1952 National Forest Policy resolution of the Government of India had recommended that the country should aim at a coverage of one-third of the total land area under forests. The position in this regard has been far from satisfactory, in as much as only about 23 per cent of the total land area is under forests and not more than 4050 per cent of this has good forest cover. The remaining areas have been degraded and depleted due to demographic and commercial pressures. Efforts made in the past for rehabilitation of the degraded forest areas have met only with limited success.
9.242 Programmes of social forestry and economic and industrial plantations have been under implementation for some time in different States with varying degree of effectiveness. Forest Development Corporations have been established in some of the States with a view to expand and speed up afforestation programmes by utilising institutional finance. Programmes for development of national parks, strengthening of research on endangered animals including project Tiger were taken up during the Fifth Plan period. Significant progress has been made in respect of economic and industrial plantations with an achievement of about 22 lakh hectares by 1979-80. Similarly the area under plantations of quick growing forest trees has also increased substantially to cover about 14.8 lakh hectares by 1979-80. There is, however, urgent need and great scope for further improvement in forestry development all over the country.
9.243 In addition to indiscriminate felling of trees for commercial purposes, large scale degradation of forests is taking place to meet the needs of fuel wood by rural population. Fuel wood accounts for about 60 per cent of all energy consumed in the country. According to the present indications, there is a huge gap in fuel wood availability which has resulted in the use of cowdung as fuel instead of manure. It has also created tremendous pressure on existing wood lots.
9.244 The main objective of the forestry programme during the Sixth Plan period will be the conservation of existing forests and the launching of country-wide afforestation and social forestry programmes. Forest policy has to fulfil three sets of needs: (a) ecological security; (b) fuel, fodder and other domestic needs of the population; and (c) the needs of village, small scale and large scale industries. In conformity with this objective the major area of thrust will be the promotion of a peoples' forestry movement. An important aspect which would require a more close attention in the coming years is employment generation through forestry activities. It is known that forestry is a highly labour intensive primary activity. It has been estimated that in the primary and secoundary sectors forestry activities generate approximately 240 million mandays of employment in a year.
9.245 Tribal economy and forest development are actually dependent. Therefore, special emphasis would be laid on linking the forestry 'programme with the economic development of tribal population as well as other weaker sections of the population. Undoubtedly tribals have particularly benefited as wage earners in forestry operations, but the forestry projects have not been designed for uplifting the economy of the tribal people in a significant manner. This requires a new awareness for forestry planning in tribal areas.
Programmes and policy
9.246 Conservation: The critical importance ol-mainitaining a proper environmental balance and the conservation of natural resources is still not adequately recognised. Felling of natural forests and depletion of the flora and fauna has been taking place at an alarming pace without adequate appreciation of the consequencies on environment and disastrous repercussions on the economy of the country. Prudence demands that a severe restraint must be imposed and exercised on the consumption of this critical resource until ^ scientific basis for sustained yield of forest resources is determined and established. Forests being the primary natural resource supporting general pools of a great variety of living organisms, it is of the utmost importance to set apart suitable forest areas for .affording adequate protection to animal and plant life, particularly those species which are threatened with extinction. In this context, the conservation of wild life and their habitat is also of critical importance. Since the benefits from such an approach are not easily quantifiable or immediately apparent, there is a general reluctance to extend the requisite priority to this field of activity. Unlike soil erosion, gene erosion is not visible to the eye and hence does not attract financial support. However, unless the valuable genetic material found in forest canopies is preserved, the fruits of thousands of years of natural selection will be lost to posterity. It is. therefore, essential for the Centre to come forward to take the lead in this respect as well as to provide some financial assistance for those activities which are crucial and can no longer be ignored. The main developmental objectives contemplated will encompass the popularisation of appropriate management systems integrated with rural development, to develop a national conservation strategy with special reference to natural living resources, to restore degraded habitat and depleted fauna and to rehabilitate the endangered and threatened species. For this it is necessary to develop a cadre of trained personnel for the management of wild life.
9.247 Forests are at present considered as revenue utilising assets in different States. This leads to several undesirable practices resulting in over exploitation. Further, to ensure effective protection and improvement of environment the diversion of forest land for non-forestry purposes should be totally stopped and machinery for protecting forests and wild life should be adequately strengthened. With the inclusion of forests and protection of wild animals and birds in the Concurrent List of the Constitution under an amendment in 1976, it is no\v possible to enact a comprehensive forest legislation for the entire-country.
9.248 Social Forestry: Social forestry programme comprising of two schemes, viz., (a) mixed plantation of waste lands, and (b) reforestation of degraded forests and raising of shelter belts was for some time treated as Centrally sponsored programme, but with effect from 1979-80 .it was transferred to the state sector. In view of the important role of soci;al forestry in the rural economy and in improving the qualLy of life. States should allocate adequate resources for implementing this programme. To intensify this programme in the districts where shortage of fuel wood is particularly acute, a new centrally sponsored scheme of social forestry including rural fuel wood plantation and farm forestry is being introduced in 100 selected districts.
9.249 Fuel Wood: Wood is a bulky material and if it is not grown locally, it would require use of other energy inputs to transport it to the area of consumption. The strategy to be adopted is thus to grow fuel wood as near as possible to the consumption points. The Government of India has already sanctioned a Centrally Sponsored Scheme of Rural Fuel Wood Plantation from the year 1980-81. State Governments should take necessary steps to implement this programme with vigour durmg the Sixth Plan period.
9.250 Forest Labour: It has been recommended by various bodies particularly the National Commission on Agriculture and the Central Board of Forestry that tne contractor should be eliminated from forest working for the sake of better scientific management of forests. States like Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Sikkim and the Administration of Andaman and Nicobar Islands have already eliminated the aystem of contractors and replaced it by the departmental working. In Gujarat, except for a few areas which are worked departmentally the entire work of forests is done through forest labourers' cooperatives. In Maha-rashtra most of the work is done through forest labour cooperiatives or departmantally or through the Forest Development Corporation. In other States the work is being taken over by the Corporation or by the Department. For complete elimination of the contractors there is need for trained personnel and adequate financial support. It is recommended that the entire contractor agency should be eliminated in all States during the Sixth Plan period.
9.251 Forest Survey: The pre-investment survey of forest resources will be developed into the Forest Survey of India (FSI) with a view to realising the long-term objectives of establishing a national forest resources survey for providing continuous and reliable information on the existing and potential forest resources ;as well as description of land use. For proper functioning, the FSI should have links with various organisations for continued updating of the technology of mapping, inventory and presentation of planning data.
9.252 Forest Management: In order to meet the requirement of commercial forestry and to improve the management capacity of Forest Corporations an Institute of Forest Management has recently been set up. The Institute's collaboration with the Institute of Management, Ahmedabad which was for a period of Is years is over and it is now ready to function autonomously. In this period the Institute h,as developed a core of knowledge by initiating some projects for training and action. Provision has been made ior strengthening this Institute.
9.253 Forest Research: All-India coordinated research projects in bamboo, neem and leguminous trees and shrubs are envisaged in the Sixth Plan. This would cover (a) survey and exploration of major areas where neem and leguminous trees occur;(b) selection of suitable eco-types and assembling the variation in germ plasm banks; (c) studies on vegetative propagation techniques; (d) breeding and improvement work, provenence and progeny trials;and (e) cytological and chemical studies. In addition, the programme of research and education both in the States and at the Forest Research Institute iand its colleges will be strengthened. The involvement of Agricultural Universities in certain aspects of forestry research has been achieved during the past three to four years but this needs further strentheming. State Forest Service Officers Colleges will also need considerable expansion.
9.254 People's Participation: Having regard to the present stace of forests in India and the big gap between demand and supply of forest products, it is essential to involve the people of every block in the development of forests. Mass media will have to be harnessed for promoting an awareness of the role of trees in human welfare. The universities ;and schools can play an important role in this direction. A Division of Forestry Extension will be set up at the Forest Research Institute, Dehra Dun. In addition, Van Vigyan Kendras will be established to provide training in agro-forestry techniques.
9.255 In addition to strengthening and expanding on-going programmes in forestry research, education and development, the following four new programmes will be introduced during the Sixth Plan period:
(a) Tree for Every Child Programme": This programme envisages the promotion of school forestry programmes based upon the interest of the children themselves with reference to the choice of trees. Under this project assistance including training and supply of relevant seedlings will be provided to all the schools which are willing to join a programme of enabling children studying tin the school to plant and protect one or more trees in their homes. The choice of the tree will be based upon considerations, such as providing botanical remedies to specific nutritional maladies (example: Vitamin 'A' deficiency induced blindness, Vitamin 'C' deficiency, etc.), the specific preference of the family for trees or horticultural, floricultural and fuel value. Those schools which have the necessary land and water facilities will be enabled to raise nurseries of appropriate seedlings within the school compound itself with the participation of the children.
(b) Eco-Development Force: An Fco-Develop-ment Force consisting predominently of e-t-servicemen will be formed for the purpose of restoring damaged hill oco-systems through afforestation and soil conservation. To start with two units of this force will be organised for working in the Western Himalayan region.
(c) Eco-Development Camps: College students drawn from different universities of India will be enabled to take up extensive tree planting work in suitable areas, such as hills, desert and coastal regions.
(d) Agro-Forestry Programmes: Forestry Departments and the Indian Council of Agricultural Research will jointly undertake agro-forestry research in order to develop suitable systems of land management which involve integration of silviculture with horticulture, agriculture, animal husbandry, etc.
9.256 It is hoped that the above programmes together with the extensive tree planting work which will be undertaken under the National Rural Employment Project will help to not only arrest the further degradation of forests but also to build the ecological infrastructure necessary for sustained development.
9.257 Keeping in view the priority attached to agriculture in the Sixth Plan and the strategy adopted for achieving a rapid growth of output and employment, the financial allocations have been made at a much higher level compared with the outlay envisaged in the interim plan 197883. Thus, the total outlay proposed for agriculture and allied programmes for the Sixth Plan 198085 is Rs. 5695 crores.
The break up of the plan outlay by States, Union Territories and Centre
is of the following order:
Details by heads of development are given in An-nexure. 9.3. Outlays of selected agricultural programmes for States and Union Territories are shown in Annexure 9.4.
9.259 In regard to the plantation crops sector, an outlay of Rs. 135 crores had been provided in the Plan oT the Ministry of Commerce as under:
9.1 State-wise average size of operational holdings for 1970-71
and 1976-77 at per Agricnitore Cecsus
9.3 Area, production and per hectare yield of foodgrains and Major
9-3 Sixth Five Year Plan Outlays: Agriculture and Allied Programnieg
under Crop Husbandry
9.4 Sixth Plan Outlay Agriculture and Allied Programmes States
and Union Territories
Annexure 9.5 Physical Targets:Agriculture and Allied Sectors-Sixth Plan (198085)
Note :Tbe aggregate of States and Union Territories is, higher than the all India targets for 1984-85.
Annexure9. 5 Cont..
note:Please see Note to Annexure 9.5
Note:These are tentative figures based on discussions with States and Union Territories held at the time of Sixth Plan meetings.
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