|7th Five Year Plan (Vol-2)||<< Back to Index|
EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS
10.1 Human resources development has necessarily to be assigned a key role in any development strategy, particularly in a country with a large population. Trained and educated on sound lines, a large population can itself become an asset in accelerating economic growth and in ensuring social change in desired directions. Education develops basic skills and abilities and fosters a value system conducive to, and in support of, national development goals, both longterm and immediate. In a world where knowledge is increasing at an exponential rate, the task of education in the diffusion of new knowledge and, at the same time, in the preservation and promotion of what is basic to India's culture and ethos, is both complex and challenging. It is, therefore, appropriate that the commencement of the Seventh Plan coincides with a comprehensive review of the education policy.
10.2 The resolution on the National Policy on Education adopted in 1968 pointed out that the great leaders of the Indian freedom movement realised the fundamental role of education and, throughout the nation's struggle for independence, stressed the unique significance of education for national development. The Resolution further declared that the radical re-construction of education as envisaged involved (i) a transformation of the system to relate it more closely to the life of the people; (ii) a continuous effort to expand educational opportunity; (iii) a sustained and intensive effort to raise the quality of education at all stages: (iv) an emphasis on the development of science and technology; and (v) the cultivation of moral and social values. According to the Resolution, the educational system must produce young men and women of character and ability, committed to national service and development.
10.3 There has been a great deal of accomplishment in the field of education since 1947. Any number which may be picked up as a parameter to define growth in education will show the magnitude of the massive quantative expansion that has taken place (Annexure 10.1). The number of recognised institutions has increased from 2,31,000 in 1951 to an estimated 7,55,000 in 1984-85. The total enrolment over the same period in these institutions increased from 24 million to nearly 132 million. The national stock of educated manpower is estimated to have increased from less than 4 million to about 48 million at present, the annual increment to the stock now being of the order of 3.5 million. It is significant to note that facilities have not only increased but also diversified at all levels and in different subjects. The enrolment for postgraduate studies, for instance has grown from a mere 20,000 in 1951 to over 300,000 by 1984-85 while that in science subjects is estimated to have increased from 4,400 to about 73,000. Extensive facilities are available for education in a variety of branches of engineering and technology. The output of this system has contributed significantly to our achievements in areas like atomic energy and satellite communication and provides the trained manpower for our economic development.
10.4 The expansion of educational facilities has also helped to some extent in the correction of regional and other imbalances and in achieving progress towards equality of educational opportunity and social justice. The annual non-Plan expenditure on education from the Central and State budgets has increased more than fifty times over the last 35 years, from Rs. 114 crores in 1950-51 to more than Rs. 6,000 crores in 1984-85.
10.5 Although the Indian education scene since independence has been characterised by massive quantitative expansion at all levels, it is still to undergo the kind of transformation envisaged in the National Policy. It is faced with a staggering backlog; the level of illiteracy is as high as 63 per cent; to achieve universal elementary education, as enjoyed by the Constitution, there will be need to enrol fifty million more children; vocationalisation of secondary education has yet to make headway; there is very significant pressure on the higher educational system and a decline in the standards of quality. There is an urgent need for a new design for education. The Approach to the Seventh Plan has emphasised that one of the primary tasks is the harnessing of the country's abundant human resources and improving their capability for development with equity. It is recognised that programmes for alleviation of poverty, reduction of social and economic inequalities and improving productivity can and should be integrated with educational development. Further, the strategies for educational programmes and training and their organisational designs should particularly focus on women, youth and economically weaker groups so that they can make increasing contribution to the socio-economic development of the country.
SIXTH PLAN REVIEW
10.6 The Sixth Plan provided, inter alia, for mass education through programmes of elementary education (formal and non-formal streams) and adult education. The Plan also envisaged increased bias towards the practical in secondary education, vocationalisation of higher secondary education and restructuring of undergraduate courses with a vocational bias. Forging beneficial linkages between education, employment and development was another objective in the field of higher education.
10.7 As enrolment target of 18 million additional children was set for the Sixth Plan period under the formal system of elementary education. According to the available reports, the additional enrolment is likely to be nearly 22 million. Although the target has thus been exceeded on an all-India basis, there have been shortfalls in a few States, especially in regard to the enrolment of girls. Also, the enrolment ratio in 1984-85 was 92 per cent for primary and 53 per cent for middle stages of education. For girls it was only 69 per cent and 38 per cent respectively. Some of the notable measures taken for the promotion of elementary education were: 'earn while you learn' scheme, mid-day meals for children, innovative curriculum renewal schemes and special emphasis on appointment of women teachers. Funds available under the National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) were also utilised for construction of school buildings.
10.8 Under the programme of non-formal education, although no specific targets were laid down, 8 million children were expected to be enrolled during the Sixth Plan. This was an experimental programme under which diverse models were to be worked out to suit the area-specific or beneficiary-group-specific requirements. It is estimated that over 3 million children would have been enrolled under this programme. Besides the non-formal education centres organised by the State Governments, innovative and experimental projects were taken up by a number of voluntary and acedemic institutions. Syllabus and instructional materials for use of learners enrolled in non-formal centres were developed following the integrated approach covering areas of health, hygiene, home science, agriculture, physics, chemistry, biology, history, geography and civics.
10.9 The position at the end of the Sixth Plan is that 80 per cent of the out-of-school children are in the nine States of Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Onssa, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal, but there is need in all States and Union Territories to improve the quality, relevance and effectiveness of the elementary education system, to improve enrolment and retention rates and to promote girls' education.
10.10 The Sixth Plan indicated the goal of reaching 100 per cent literacy in the age-group 15-35 years by 1990. While no definite physical target was laid down for the Sixth Plan, the adult education programme was to be developed on a large scale for the age-group 15-35 years to combat the problem of illiteracy among the productive segment of the population in general and, in particular, among the rural poor. The Central Government funded 386 rural functional literacy projects in the States besides giving assistance to 380 voluntary agencies and 49 universities for adult education programmes. In addition there were programmes of the State Government. It is estimated that 20 million adult illiterates would have been covered by these programmes during the Sixth Plan. Fifteen State Resource Centres provided the resource support to adult education centres in terms of curriculum formulation, preparation of teaching and learning material, development of methods and media, training of functionaries, monitoring and evaluation, and research and innovation. Development of learning materials for women and weaker sections was given special attention.
10.11 Enrolment in secondary and higher secondary levels has increased from about 10 million in 1979-80 to about 17 million in 1984-85. The 10+2 pattern of education has been adopted by 20 States and 9 Union Territories although it is yet to be fully implemented in some of these States. The National Council of Educational Research and Training, the State Councils of Educational Research and Training and the State Institutes of education continued their efforts towards improvement in science and environmental education, value-orientation including national integration and curriculum reforms. Propagation of community singing in schools was launched as a national movement.
10.12 In the context of INSAT utilisation, State Institutes of Educational Technology (SIET) were set up in six States, namely Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, Gujarat, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh to produce educational television programmes. A Central Institute of Educational Technology (CIET) was set up for the production of programmes, training of personnel from the States as well as for providing guidance in the development of the programmes.
10.13 Vocationalisation of education at the higher secondary stage was one of the important reforms included in the Sixth Plan. This programme has made limited progress with an enrolment of about 55,000 students in vocational education, confined to nine States and three Union Territories where it has been introduced. Measures have been initiated to establish the necessary links combining vocationalisation, skill training, in-plant apprenticeship and placement in gainful employment as composite parts of an integrated effort to raise the level of utility of the programme, and its wider acceptance and success. The organisational requirements for the planning, implementation, supervision and evaluation of the integrated programme, along with the mechanism for effective coordination among the concerned agencies, are being assessed and defined.
10.14 Enrolment in higher education is estimated to have increased from 2.5 million in 1979-80 to 3.5 million in 1984-85. Efforts were made for the consolidation of existing institutions and to equip universities and colleges with essential facilities within the limited resources available. Other important programmes taken up during the Sixth Plan included restructuring of under-graduate courses, improvement in standards of teaching of sciences and the humanities, strengthening of postgraduate education and promotion of research within the university system. A one hour daily telecast on higher education was also initiated for the benefit of colleges. On the recommendation of the Science Advisory Committee to the Cabinet, a new scheme was introduced in 1983-84 for strengthening the infrastructure facilities for research and post-graduate education in science and technology within the university system.
10.15 During the Sixth Plan period, the major emphasis in technical education was on diversification and optimum utilisation of existing courses and institutional resources. Efforts were made to provide facilities in areas such as computer sciences, instrumentation, product development, maintenance enginerering, bio-sciences and material sciences. Forty-six selected polytechnics were assisted and supported to develop them into a network of "community polytechnics" which would help transfer and apply available technology with the object of modernising rural structures. New manpower training programmes were undertaken for emerging areas in technology such as micro-processor application, remote sensing, laser technology, atmospheric sciences, and energy sciences. Programmes of management education, particularly in the Institutes of Mangement, were reviewed by an Expert Committee and on its recommendation, the establishment of a new Institute at Lucknow was taken in hand.
10.16 The Resolution on National Sports Policy was laid before Parliament in 1984 to serve as a policy frame for the Central and State Governments and all organisations connected with sports. The policy gives a new thrust to sports activities towards achieveing excellence in as many areas of sports and games as possible and at the same time making "sports for all" a reality. The Eastern Regional Centre, Calcutta, of Netaji National Institute of Sports, Patiala (NIS) started functioning from 1983 providing additional training courses for coaches. The national coaching scheme now has an authorised cadre strength of 800 coaches. 25 Regional sports coaching centres have been developed in State capitals and district headquarters. Besides its regular training programme, NIS implemented on behalf of the Central Government, programmes of National Sports Festival for women, All India Rural Sports tournament and Sports Talent Search Scholarship.
10.17 The Sports Authority of India was established in 1984 and undertook several sports activities in addition to maintaining and managing infrastructure and other facilities created for ASIAD 1982. Sports Councils with the assistance of Central and State Government have jointly undertaken programmes for improving and developing facilities for the promotion of sports and games. Specifically, assistance was given for development of playtields, construction of stadia and swimming pools, construction of sports complexes, establishment and maintenance of rural sports centres, running annual coaching schemes and for purchase of sports equipment. The ceilings of financial assistance for these purposes were also enhanced. National Sports Federations were also assisted for organising coaching camps for preparing the Indian teams and competitors to participate in approved international competitions. Under the scheme of National Sports Organisation, financial assistance was provided for developing physical facilities for sports and games in colleges and universities, especially for developing play-fields, and construction or gymnasia.
10.18 Youth programmes for student and non-student youth were continued and expanded during the Sixth Plan. A National Service Scheme originally launched in 1969-70 as a pilot scheme with 40,000 students, covered over six lakh students in the year 1984-85. The scheme enabled students to participate during their first degree studies in various programmes of social service and national development and provided them an opportunity to understand the conditions and problems of social environment. The activities undertaken by the students included environmental conservation, plantation of trees, cleaning of village ponds, construction of wells, health and family welfare programmes, family welfare education for rural women and sanitation drives in urban slums. They also undertook some production-oriented programmes. Nehru Yuvak Kendras set up to cater primarily to the needs of rural student and non-student youth, organised several social service camps, slum clearance schemes and environmental awareness schemes as well as programmes for training of youth leadership. In the year 1984-85, 120 youth leadreship camps and 180 work camps were organised, involving 65,000 participants.
10.19 Programmes for preservation of monuments and sites of national importance were taken up on priority basis. An expert group on archaeology carried out a professional study to prepare an overall plan of action. The number of archaeological circles which look after the preservation of monuments and sites of national importance was raised from 12 to 16. The number of excavation branches was also raised from three to five. Assistance was also provided to Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH) for promoting the conservation and propagation of works of Indian art and culture. A large number of conservation programmes were taken up for repair and preservation of monuments and sites of national importance. The facilities at the National Museum, New Delhi, were further improved through taking up the first phase of its construction programme. The National Museum organised several aided tours and short-term in-service courses. The Indian Museum, Calcutta, the Salar Jang Museum, Hyderabad, the National Gallery of Modern Art, New Delhi the Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, the National Museum of Man and the National Archives were the other institutions whose programmes received support during the Sixth Plan . The National Council of Science Museums was also supported to undertake the task of popularising science and technology, among students in particular, through a wide range of programmes. The National Research Laboratory for Conservation of Cultural Property in Lucknow undertook a number of research programmes for technical studies with a view to improving conservation methods.
10.20 The Anthropological Survey of India was supported through funding of its several research projects on physical and cultural anthropology and allied disciplines. The Survey also undertook exploratory studies in the Himalaya, Narmada Valley and Coastal Andhra Pradesh.
10.21 Library programes were another area of importance during the Sixth Plan. The construction programme at National Library, Calcutta, was taken up. The Raja Ram Mohan Roy Library Foundation which renders assistance to States and Union Territories for development of public libraries was further strengthened. Promotion and dis-semination of culture was another major programme of the Department of Culture. The Sangeet Natak Akademi, the Sahitya Akademi and the Lalit Kala Akademi, besides the National School of Drama, undertook several programmes in this area. The Centre for Cultural Resources and Training, New Delhi, organised a number of in-service training programmes for the benefit of teachers drawn from primary and high or higher secondary schools in different parts of the country. Financial, assistance was also provided to dance, drama and theatre ensembles and to selected cultural organisations.
STRATEGY AND THRUST AREAS IN THE SEVENTH PLAN
10.22 The Seventh Plan provides for reorientation of the education system so as to prepare the country to meet the challenges of the next century. The main thrust areas in the Seventh Plan would be: (i) achievement of universal elementary education, (ii) eradication of illiteracy in the age-group 15-35 years; (iii) vocationalisation and skill-training programmes at different levels of education; (iv) upgradation of standards and modernisation at all stages of education with effective links with the world of work and with special emphasis on science and environment and on value orientation; (v) provision of facilities for education of high quality and excellence in every district of the country; and (vi) removal of obsolescence and modernisation of technical education.
10.23 The major strategies for achieving these objectives would include effective decentralised planning and organisational reforms, promotion of non-formal and open learning systems, adoption of low cost alternatives and optimum use of resources, forging of beneficial linkages with industry and development agencies, and mobilisation of community resources and societal involvement.
10.24 Overriding priority will be given to realising universalisation of elementary education for children in the age-group 6-14 years by 1990; this will continue to be part of the Minimum Needs Programme. The emphasis will shift from mere enrolment to retention of pupils in schools and to the attainment by them of basic elements of learning. The objective is sought to be achieved through a combination of formal and non-formal methods, focussing sharply on the needs of girls and of children belonging to the economically and socially weaker sections.
10.25 The enrolment at the elementary stage is estimated to have reached nearly 112 million by the end of the Sixth Plan period. For achieving the goal of universalisation by the end of the Seventh Plan, over 50 million children will have to be additionally enrolled. A projection of enrolment in full-time elementary schools is given in Table 10.1. Increasing enrolment in full-time schools beyond this level of 137 million in classes I to VIII might not be feasible due to socio-economic reasons and other factors. Even to achieve this level effectively, sustained efforts will have to be made to reduce the number of dropouts.
10.26 Non-formal education would be the other important programme for the achievement of universalisation of elementary education as this can be useful to those who are not able or willing to attend full-time schools. The number of children to be covered by the non-formal programme is reckoned to be of the order of 25 million. Non-formal education in the Seventh Plan will, therefore, have to be expanded at a fast pace and made acceptable with a variety of forms to suit the varying needs of the target groups. Non-formal system should be made flexible and appropriately linked to the formal system. Adequate textual material with area-specific background and supplementary reading material would be developed and made available to students. Adequate teacher-training arrangements will be made for teachers participating in the non-formal system. For optimum use of resources, the schools, the non-formal education centres and adult education centres should develop linkages and be educationally integrated with development programmes.
TABLE 10.1 : Expansion of Elementary Stage Education
Note: Figures in parentheses indicate enrolment ratio relative to population in the corresponding age-group. State-wise details of target and achievement are given in Annexure 10.2 and 10.3.
10.27 The enrolment projections in paras 10.24 and 10.25 are indicative figures, worked out at the macro-level and disaggregated to the State level. Specific operational targets will require to be worked out by the State Governments concerned block-wise and village-wise through decentralised planning. Once such targets are worked out for the catchment area of each school or a cluster of schools, it would be expected that the authorities responsible for the achievement of the target would adopt the most appropriate strategies of implementation and monitoring of progress.
10.28 The role of the teacher is most crucial in achieving universal elementary education, especially in the motivation of children as well as their parents. They can play a leading role in improving the quality of primary education, bringing in environment and health education and value orientation. In-service training of teachers thus becomes a programme of high priority. The training of teachers will include, apart from pedagogy, the use of mass media, science and technology, planning and curriculum design for local environment-based courses, mobilisation and use of community resources and other relevant subjects. There will also be special emphasis on teaching methods and other measures particularly required for first generation learners and for reducing the number of dropouts. Teacher training institutions will be developed and strengthened accordingly.
10.29 Facilities will have to be created for the training of additional teachers required during the Seventh Plan period. There is as yet no infrastructure in the country for training of teachers in non-formal and early childhood education. Training of such teachers would have to be organised by suitably strengthening the existing teacher training centres.
10.30 Considering the numbers involved (over 2.5 million teachers), institutionalised in-service education of teachers will be difficult to organise not only due to the huge costs involved but also due to lack of facilities for training. It is therefore, necessary to think of a variety of training arrangements. Among others, these would include:
10.31 Drop-outs and non-attendance of children at the primary stage of education are due to poor school facilities, unrelated curriculum, poor methods of teaching and poverty. The reorientation of teacher training referred to above will help to a large extent in tackling these factors. In addition, suitable supportive programmes for the provision of incentives, the improvement of facilities, increasing community awareness, curricular reforms, adjusting of school timings, utiisation of local community resources and earn-while-you-learn scheme, etc., will be introduced or expanded selectively according to local requirements.
10.32 Enrolment of girls has been lagging behind despite special measures taken in the past. Towards the end of the Sixth Plan some steps were taken to promote enrolment of girls and for providing non-formal education to them wherever necessary. In the Seventh Plan, the focus of effort will be on promotion of girls' education through appointment of women teachers, attachment of pre-school centres, provision of free unforms and other incentives.
10.33 Special emphasis will be given to the enhancement of quality and efficiency of elementary education. The Seventh Plan will seek to provide specific funds for those programmes which will enhance the efficiency of the system. There is need to have a fresh look at the design and construction of school buildings as well as the text-books in use. Various projects like population education, environment and wild life education and curriculm renewal have helped in the preparation of suitable teaching-learning material and this material will be utilised.
10.34 Due to the difficult resource position and the magnitude of the task involved in the implementation of the programme of universalisation of elementary education, optimal use should be made of the available infrastructure and funds. The Plan and non-Plan budget provision for elementary education and the existing teacher resources should be reviewed and redeployed on the basis of actual requirements and attendance in classes. Part-time teachers or helper-teachers on fixed salary, selected from among locally available educated men and women will be utilised to augment teaching resources and also improve relevance and cost-effectiveness of elementary education. Community support and financial contributions will be mobilised especially for clearing the backlog of physical facilities and school buildings. The construction of school buildings will be taken up also under the National Rural Employment Programme (NREP) and similar programmes.
10.35 Early childhood education is important both from the point of view of the personality development of the child and for inculcating in the children a healthy attitude to school-going to help increase their retention rate in schools. This programmes will be dovetailed with nutrition, health care and social welfare as a package within the broad framework of the programme of Integrated Child Development Service (ICDS). Voluntary efforts to undertake innovative experiments in respect of early childhood education will be supported.
10.36 The National Policy Resolution on Education recommends the placement of disabled children in regular schools. The scheme of integrated education of disabled children was started by the Ministry of Social Welfare as a Centrally-sponsored scheme where handicapped children were sought to be integrated in the normal school system with a view to promoting their psychological acceptance. The scheme is now being implemented by the Ministry of Education. One of the difficulties facing this scheme is the lack of trained teachers in special education. As such, during the Seventh Plan, greater emphasis will be laid on teacher training.
10.37 Eradication of adult illiteracy and the development of a programme of continuing adult education is a major thrust area in the Seventh Plan. The task of covering all the illiterates in the age-group 15-35 years by 1990 is a formidable one. As motivation of the learner is crucial for success and as the number to be covered is about 90 million, the strategy to achieve the goal can only be through a mass movement involving social institutions, voluntary organisations, students, teachers, employers and the community. This programme will also have to be linked effectively with various development programmes especially the Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP). Active participation of village panchayats, mahila mandals, community centres, etc. is essential. Employers will be required to impart necessary functional education to all their illiterate employees. The programmes of Nehru Yuvak Kendras (NYK) and the National Service Scheme (NSS) will also focus on eradication of illiteracy. Programmes for motivating the learners by holding community meetings and through publicity, through posters, films, broadcasting, etc., will be implemented on an adequate scale and with sufficient intensity to create a conducive climate. A network of libraries and the development of literature for neo-literates will also be initiated as a follow-up programme to avoid lapse into illiteracy. Community participation in all literacy programmes will be an essential feature from village level upwards to give proper direction and orientation and lend effective support to this national programme.
10.38 Another aspect of education of adults relates to training in funcational skills relevant to their respective economic activities. Programmes for this purpose will be strengthed and adequate resource support provided for organising technical and vocational skill-based courses for the benefit of adult learners through Shramik Vidyapeeths and other similar institutions. As a part of the post-literacy and follow-up services, short-duration condensed training courses will be organised for upgrading the skills of the neo-literates and for increasing their awareness of various social events. The existing programmes on rural functional literacy and State adult education programmes and various training programmes for adult learners will be consolidated and dovetailed in the new mass movement programmes on adult education. Citizenship education including adult education, will be a necessary part of the entire education system, and will be specially promoted.
10.39 The demand for secondary education has been growing. The expansion and effectiveness of elementary education will provide a further impetus to this growth. The projected demand for additional facilities will, to some extent, be met by better utilisation of resources in the existing schools. Provision has been made for this purpose and for promoting distance learning techniques and open school systems. Unplanned growth of high/ higher secondary schools will be checked. Norms for the establishment of secondary school will be evolved and strictly observed in order to avoid proliferation of economically nonviable and educationally inefficient institutions. In expanding the facilities, special attention will be given to the needs of backward areas of under-privileged sections of the population and of girls. Girls education will be free upto the higher secondary stage.
10.40 The teaching of science and mathematics at high/higher secondary stage of education will be strengthened and made universal. Efforts will be made to update and modernise science curricula, improve laboratories and libraries in schools and ensure the quality of science teachers through large-scale inservice training programmes. Environment education will form an important aspect of science education.
10.41 The socially useful productive work (work experience) programme component seeks to highlight the link between work and education and to develop positive work ethics and work habits. The programme would allow for better utilisation and integration of community expertise in the teaching-learning process and the use of facilities available with local industry and development institutions. Besides, the support system for development, training, management and supervision available for vocationalisation programmes, will also be utilised for the programme of socially useful productive work at the secondary stage. Some courses/activities of pre-vocational character will also be introduced for more effective implementation of this programme.
10.42 In view of the importance of linking education with productivity, a major impetus will be given in the Seventh Plan to vocationalisation of the higher secondary stage. Facilities for vocational education will be suitably diversified to cover a large number of fields in agriculture, industry, trade and commerce, and services. It will be ensured that there is no duplication of courses between technical and vocational institutions and the schools. The skills imparted, will be of adequate standard for securing gainful employment or self-employment. At the same time, opportunities for pursuing higher general and professional education would be provided.
10.43 Vocational/career courses in educational institutions will be introduced in the flexible manner linked to emerging work opportunites. The current intake will be considerably increased by introducing vocational courses in many more institutions.
10.44 Based on the evaluation of the on-going scheme of vocationalisation, States are taking steps to re-organise and improve the programme. An Expert Committee has been set up to suggest ways and means of implementing an expanded programme of vocationalisation fully coordinated with the education system and manpower needs of economic development. The report of this Committee will provide guidelines for further development.
10.45 The present wide reach of the media will be used for improving education, especially at the secondary stage. Facilities for production of the requisite audio-visual material including educational software for broadcasting and telecasting will be augmented substantially in the Seventh Plan. During the Sixth Plan, a small beginning was made in providing computer literacy to students in selected secondary schools. Based on this experience, steps will be taken to extend the programme to cover different aspects of computer appreciation and application.
10.46 One of the essential conditions for continuous improvement in the quality of secondary education is an effictive system of in-service training of teachers. The existing facilities will be assessed, additional requirements identified and steps taken to meet them. The opportunity provided by the new communication technology will be explored for this purpose. Here again, speical attention will be paid to the development of requisite software. Training of personnel required for effective use of modern communication technology and computers in education will be given very high priority. The NCERT which has already initiated programmes in this regard, will help the States build a network for this purpose.
10.47 Education has a crucial contribution to make towards promoting national integration, understanding and a sense of togetherness and harmony. There is, therefore, great need for an integrated and value oriented education with a national perspective. This programme should be so designed that its various threads can be woven into the curricular and cocurricular activities. Suitable revision of text books, strengthening of school libraries and training of teachers would be important from this point of view.
10.48 The main emphasis in higher education will be on consolidation, improvement in standards and reforms in the system to make higher education more relevant to national needs and to forge forward and backward linkages of higher education with employment and economic development. Expansion of general higher education facilities will be carefully planned so as to take care of the need to provide larger access to weaker sections and first generation learners from backward areas. In doing so, emphasis will be laid on providing access to existing institutions through appropriate reservation, scholarships, provision of hostel facilities, etc. A network of facilities will be provided through open universities, correspondence courses and part-time education to meet social demand and the need of continuing education.
10.49 The need and urgency for restructuring of undergraduate courses so as to bring in the necessary concern for relevance and use, application orientation, flexibility and diversification is well recognised. The guidelines for restructuring of courses of study indicated by the University Grants Commission (UGC) provide for addition of groups of courses that may be relevant and useful according to local or regional needs. Extension activities will be developed as components within each subject/discipline. Beneficial linkages will be developed between colleges and development institutions and programmes. Application oriented courses will be given due emphasis.
10.50 The Indira Gandhi National Open University, which is being established as a pace setting institution, will besides offering courses in higher education based on the principles of the open learning system, be also responsible for training of personnel, production of Programmes and development of material for utilisation through the electronic media. The National Open University will function as a nodal resource .centre for coordination of programmes and development of models for distance education, documentation and dissemination of information and organisation of appropriate support programmes. Besides this, six centres of educational technology being developed by UGC would serve as regional centres for the production of software for educational technology and training of personnel engaged in the programme of distance education and correspondence courses for higher education.
10.51 In the area of post-graduate education and research, emphasis will be placed on promoting quality programmes, inter-disciplinary studies and on new emerging frontiers. Research within the university system will get due emphasis and be coordinated with national research efforts under the Science and Technology programme. The programme of strengthening infrastructure facilities for research in science and technology and of postgraduate education within the university system which was started on the recommendation of the Science Advisory Committee to the Cabinet, will be further developed.
10.52 Training of teachers in higher education is another area which needs special attention in the Seventh Plan. The faculty improvement programmes will be designed to impart knowledge of new methods and techniques of teaching, learning and evaluation, to develop a national value system, and to prepare the teachers for the task of restructuring undergraduate courses.
10.53 Many of the reforms initiated earlier, such as autonomous colleges and examination reform, seem to have faced obstacles and delays in the process of implementation. The Seventh Plan will give high priority to the speedy implementation of various reforms already initiated and to the modernisation of university administration.
10.54 Besides concerted efforts to increase the enorl-ment of Scheduled Castes/Scheduled Tribes students, the most significant programmes for these students will consist of remedial teaching, preparatory training and special coaching. These programmes will be implemented on a large scale by institutions with sizeable student population drawn from the Scheduled Cast and Scheduled Tribes and other weaker sections. These institutions will be strengthened to impart a better quality of education. The scope of these programmes will also be enlarged to include training for employment, coaching for competitive examinations for recruitment to various services and adult and continuing education programmes.
10.55 In the context of the rapid modernisation of the economy envisaged in the near future and given the Seventh Plan objective of improvement in productivity, technical education has to play a leading role. The main emphasis in the field of technical education during the Seventh Plan period will be on the following:
10.56 To achieve these objectives there would be a balanced development of institutions of technical education at all levels. The Indian Institutes of Technology which have been set up as pace-setting institutions, would be further developed as advanced centres of excellence. The Institutes have already initiated research work in a number of new areas. An expert committee has been set up to look into the requirements of these Institutes in the context of the challenges ahead. The regional and other engineering colleges would also be developd further, particularly with a view to their modernisation and to making their courses relevent to the emerging requirements. The upgradation of standards and modernisation of polytechnics will also be accorded a high priority. A major task in the Seventh Plan will be the removal of obsolescence in equipment and revision of courses in all technical education institutions, many of which were drawn up more than two decades ago. The All India Council for Technical Education has recommended that it is necessary also to restructure polytechnic education with a view to:
10.57 A reliable manpower information system is a pre-requisite to planning in the field of technical education. A national manpower information system is being developed for storage, updating, retrieval and analysis of manpower information to assist in technical education planning. It has at present 17 nodal centres and is coordinated by the Technical Education Division of the Department of Education with the assistance of the lead centre located at the Institute of Applied Manpower Research. The manpower information system will be considerably strengthened and integrated with the planning of technical education.
10.58 Besides general improvements, polytechnics will be assisted to undertake extension services for the benefit of the community. The programme of community polytechnics, already initiated in the earlier Plans, will be expanded in the Seventh Plan to cover as many ploytech-nics as possible.
10.59 Curriculum changes need to be introduced periodically in the light of emerging trends in technology. This will require more effective collaborative linkages with industry and research and development establishments and agencies. The allocations provided from budgetary funds for technical education have to be supplemented by contributions from user industries and organisations, which will be facilitated when closer collaborative arrangements are established.
S and T Component
10.60 Considerable emphasis will be laid on the improvement of the quality of teaching science and technology at all levels of education. At school level, NCERT at the centre and SCERTs/SIEs in States will provide training to teachers on all aspects of science and technology including design, development and production of science kits and strengthen science laboratories of secondary schools. A National Science Centre will be established for displaying experimental models and projects.
10.61 The quality of higher science and technology education has to match the best in the world. In this connection, university departments and colleges will be selected for providing special assistance to bring about improvements in science education.
10.62 Modernisation of laboratories in Indian Institutes of Technology, Regional Engineering Colleges and other institutions of technical eduction will be accorded priority for providing research in technology. An International Centre for Science and Technology Education will be established. This will operate through a net work of existing institutions and serve as a resource centre for cooperative research, and will also disseminate ideas, methods and materials to bring about basic improvement and modernisation in Science and Technology education. The total estimated outlay for S and T component in the education sector will be of the order of Rs. 180 crores, including Rs. 35 crores for the programmes recommended by the Science Advisory Committee to the Cabinet.
10.63 The present examination-oriented system has distorted the very character of education and has converted it into a mere system of certification to regulate the flow of manpower to the labour market. The dominance of the examination system over the educational processes has led not only to the wrong type of learning, but has also led to many attendant malpractices. Examination reforms to remedy the present malaise would be given the utmost priority. At the same time, the employing sector should be helped to devise its own selection procedures, lay down academic qualifications, prepare assessment tests and evaluation systems in keeping with job content and the ability and skill for performance of the tasks attached to a job.
10.64 The Seventh Plan provides for the continuation and limited expansion of on-going programmes relating to scholarships, development of languages, book promotion, educational planning and administration as well as to effective monitoring, particularly of elementary (including non-formal) and adult education
10.65 The existing schemes of scholarships will be reviewed and, if necessary, re-oriented to help talented students to develop their full potential. The Central Government schemes of national scholarships including that for talented children from rural areas will continue in the Seventh Plan. Financial assistance by itself is not adequate for the development of talented children, especially from the poorer sections of society and from backward areas. Their access to, and placement in, good academic institutions is equally necessary. Placements in residential schools will be particularly helpful and a scheme for this propose is already in operation.
10.66 To provide good quality modern education with Indian values to talented children, particularly from the rural areas, it is proposed to set up 432 model secondry schools, one in each district, during the Seventh Five year Plan. These schools will offer a common core curriculum, ensuring comparability in standards and promoting National Integration and National Values. They will bring together students from different parts of the country, providing opportunities to talented children to fully develop their potential. Admission to these schools will be through a test conducted at tehsil block level, in which the best performers from every primary school in the district will be eligible to appear. The test would be designed by the NCERT, and it will be associated in conducting and evaluating the test. Residential facilities will be provided in these schools. An autonomous organisation, registered under the Registration of Societies Act, will be set up for establishing and running these schools.
Development of Languages
10.67 The development of languages is of basic improtance for all educational development programmes. The activities and programmes undertaken in the field of languages comprise: (i) promotion of Hindi (as envisaged under Article 351 of the Constitution); (ii) promotion of modern Indian languages (as provided in National Policy of Education); (iii) promotion of English and other foreign languages; and (iv) promotion of Sanskrit and other classical languages such as Arabic and Persian. Othere languages for which the Centre has special responsibility, like Urdu and Sindhi, have also received attention. These activities will be futher developed in the Seventh Plan, with special attention being paid for raising the standard of language competency, spoken as well as written.
10.68 The capabilities of existing institutions will be strengthened, particularly, with a view to enabling them to undertake a much larger programme of inservice training,publication of textual and other materials, production of software for transmission through radio and television and to work at the grass-roots level. A selective approach will be adopted in respect of publications, so as to ensure that materials of good quality become available and are widely disseminated. Instead of entrusting publication of dictionaries, terminologies, text-books etc., exclusively to governmental agencies, it is proposed to involve creative scholars, university departments and literary organisation with publication activities. Voluntary organisations working for the development are promotion of various languages will be supported, particularly, for undertaking innovative and experimental projects the experience from which will assist in more effective teaching and learning of languages, wheather by formal or informal methods.
10.69 In Sanskrit, emphasis will be given to activities which will ensure preservation of Shastric and Vedic traditions in oral and written forms, preservation, editing and cataloguing of rare manuscripts, publications of rare and out-of-print books, and training of teachers. It is proposed to assist selected institutions for audio and video taping of recitations of various sakhas which for want of continuing training of scholars in the oral tradition, are becoming extinct. Support will be provided for inter-disciplinary research particularly 'vith a view to indentifying the scientific and technical advancement that had taken place in the past and had been recorded in various Sanskrit texts.
10.70 The programmes being undertaken for the development of modern Indian languages, including Urdu and Sindhi and also classical languages like Arabic and Persian will be continued and additional support provided to increase their coverage.
Art and Culture
10.71 In Art and Culture the main thrust in the Seventh Five Year Plan would be on the develop.iient of culture in all aspects, with emphasis on dissemination, and on the promotion and development of regional cultures and building up of a sense of the oneness and underlying unity and cohesiveness of India. This would require the involvement of the masses in cultural activities. In order to achieve these objectives, the programmes of the Seventh Plan would include:
10.72 It is proposed to set up seven zonal cultural centres which while developing the unique cultural identities of various areas in the states would also stress and explore their cultural kinship in relation to the totality of India's composite culture, highlighting the essential unity in diversity of the Indian cultural heritage. The Centres would provide facilities for creative development of arts; with special emphasis on folk arts as also the revival of vanishing arts.
10.73 The traditional fairs and festivals which provide the continuing link with the rich traditions of the past would be supported through the State agencies and Zonal Cultural Centres. Appropriate programmes would be taken up to provide exposure to youth to the cultural diversity of the country to raise their awareness of the rich heritage that exists in the country.
10.74 Preservation, documentation and conservation of our rich and varied cultural heritage would continue to receive priority in the Seventh Plan. This would mean greater attention to the development of archaeology museums, archives, manuscript libraries, Budhist-Tibetan studies, and to folk-lore and oral traditions. It is recognised that strands of cultural heritage run through a wide range of development sectors and programmes. These need to be identified and demonstrated as diverse aspects of our rich traditions. Art forms and cultural institutions provide a powerful medium to foster national integration as well as national development. Necessary co-ordination links will be established and co-operative programmes will be undertaken for this purpose.
10.75 Greater emphasis will be laid on strengthening of arts through institutions, such as the Academies. Assistance would continue to be provided to voluntary organisations engaged in the promotion of art and Culture. Library systems would be strengthened throughout the country with special attention to improving the facilities in the National level institutions.
10.76 Some of the rich existing art forms are in the realm of tribal and folk art. The development of folk and tribal arts, especially those which are facing extinction such as the folk art of the Himalayan regions, threatened ecologically as also culturally, would be supported through assistance to voluntary organisations engaged in these fields and areas.
10.77 In the field of anthropology, new projects have been identified to study the people of India and promote dissemination of culture. The Rashtriya Manav Sangraha-laya which is expected to be completed in the Seventh Plan, would recreate the history of human evolution, the evolution of culture and the range of living cultures in India.
10.78 The Indira Gandhi National Centre for Art will be set up at New Delhi as a resource centre and data base for the arts. It will also develop a major informatics library of cultural materials. The National Theatre will also be established on the same premises to support and project activities particularly in the field of visual arts including folk and tribal arts.
Youth and Sports
10.79 According to the 1981 census, 220 million or about 30% of our population is in the age-group of 15-34 years, with 73% living in the rural areas. The majority of them do not have the benefit of formal education. The problems of youth, therefore have to be identified, with existing programes being strengthened and new programmes devised to involve their participation and development. The two existing programmes of National Service Scheme (NSS) and Nehru Yuvak Kendras (NYKs) have proved useful in promoting the involvement of youth, both student and non-student, and urban and rural, and in creating awareness among them of nationally accepted objectives and motivating them to work towards their fulfilment. Both these programmes will be further de-velopmed and expanded in the Seventh Plan. The strength of the NSS will be raised from the six hundred and ten thousand at the end of the Sixth Plan to one million at the end of the Seventh Plan. Activities of Nehru Yuvak Kendras will be expanded to cover all the districts in the country and will also be diversified. The organisational structure of the Yuvak Kendras will also be revamped to impart greater flexibility in the development of programmes for youth, their speedier execution and closer monitoring. The aim will be to make the Kendras effective by ensuring co-ordinating links between youth and the various agencies of Government and public sector in the national development effort. Programmes of scouting and guiding, mountaineering and adventure. Commonwealth youth programmes and International Youth Exchange Delegations, and National Service Volunteer Schemes will be continued.
10.80 A major step will be taken during the Seventh Plan to translate into action the newly adopted Resolution on National Sports Policy, by giving high priority to the development of infrasturcture and facilities for sports and games at grass-root levels and developing the potential of our human resources both in the rural and urban areas. Efforts will be made to raise national standards in games and sports. Programmes for spotting and nurturing potential sports talent through coaching, training and nutrition required for helping the talented to realise their highest level would be continued. Present schemes like Rural Sports Tournaments, Women's Sports Festivals, National Talent Search Scholarships grants to National Federations and State Sports Councils etc., will be expanded. The activities of the Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports, Patiala will be intensified and its coverage enlarged. The Sports Authority of India will be assisted to pursue its main objective of promotion and broad-basing of sports in the country and creation of health consciousness among citizens through appropriate and meaningful schemes.
10.81 The Seventh Plan outlay for education is of the order of Rs. 6383 crores of which the states sector outlay is Rs. 3994 crores. The sub-sectoral distribution is given in Annexure 10.4.
10.82 The provision for education is mainly in the States' sector. The Centre will play a coordinating role and provide leadership and guidance for new and innovative programmes. Out of the total non-plan budget estimates of education in 1983-84, amounting to Rs. 5229 crores, nearly 91 per cent was in the States' Sector. Nearly 87 per cent of the total national expenditure on education is incurred on non-Plan side. In view of the constraints on resources for education, the structure and pattern of utilisation of Plan and non-Plan funds needs to be reviewed, to ensure the optimal use of funds in relation to the goals of the Seventh Plan. It is proposed to adopt low cost designs and devices for effecting economy and for reducing unit costs. Besides non-budgetary resources have to be tapped and substantial resources mobilised from the community especially for replenishing and augmenting physical facilities in educational institutions.
10.83 It is also necessary to emphasis the non-monetary inputs in educational development, i.e., better planning, advanced technologies and practices, careful block level and institutional planning, and school mapping; better systems of supervision and administration; monitoring and evaluation; a good information system; dedicated efforts by teachers students and educational administrators; intensive utilisation of existing resources and facilities; and, above all, commitment and active involvement of the local community. Educational research and training and planning and administration of education needs to be streamlined. The State' level capabilities particularly require to be built up under the leadership of the National Council of Educational Research and Training and National Institute of Educational Planning and Administration.
* Estimates Sources:
ANNEXURE10.2 : Likely Achievement of Enorlment in Classes I-V 1984-85
Note: Figures supplied by State Governments; other figures have been commpiled from state Plan documents, 1985-86.
Likely Achievement of Enrolment in Class VI-VIII, 1984-85
Note :'Figures supplied by State Governments; other figures were compiled from State Plan documents, 1985-86
ANNEXURE-10.3 : Target of Additional Enrolment in Classes I-V and VI-VIII in the Seventh Plan, 1985-90
* Negative enrolment due to lower level under and over-age group children.
Plan Outlay by Major Heads of Education
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