|7th Five Year Plan (Vol-2)||<<
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SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY
MAJOR PROGRAMMES OF SCIENTIFIC AGENCIES/ DEPARTMENTS
17.157 The Indian atomic energy programme was launched mainly to meet the long-term power needs of the country, particularly of regions located at great distances from the main coal-bearing areas and to utilise nuclear techniques in agriculture, industry, medicine and other areas. The programme is based on the significant availability of uranium for the first phase of the programme and of abundant thorium resources for the later part. In view of the strategic nature of this area and the need to avoid vulnerability, the programme has been taken up on a highly self-reliant basis from the outset, hence the added stress on research and development.
17.158 The Seventh Plan proposals for the R and D sector of the Department of Atomic Energy include the programmes of BARC, VEC, CAT, RRC, AMD, TIFR, SINP, TMC and Institute of Physics (Bhubaneshwar) and also grants-in-aid and housing.
17.159 Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC): The new high-flux 100-MW indigenous reactor DHRUVA is expected to go into operation soon. The reprocessing plant has been recommissioned at Trombay. Research and Development in support of the 500-MW stations in underway. New facilities for research in nuclear sciences include the Variable Energy Cyclotron, the Pelletron accelerator, (both constituting national nuclear facilities) and the electron accelerator for chemical research. Mixed oxide fuel has been developed on a laboratory scale, and design of the processes and equipment for large-scale production have been completed. This development can be of great significance for light-water power reactors. Plutonium carbide fuel for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is under production. The Radiation Medicine Centre has enlarged the scope of nuclear medicine in the country. The number of isotope users in industry and medicine has increased.
17.160 The R and D proposals of BARC fall under the broad areas of physical, computer, chemical and life sciences, nuclear materials, nuclear fuels, nuclear operations, reactor engineering and safety research, production and applications of radio isotopes, and instrumentation.
17.161 Facilities will be created for the development and testing of power reactor components and equipments, including fuelling machines, and for generating basic data for thermal hydraulics and safety analysis. Research will be carried out on the modernisation of reactor control instruments and on the development of CAMAC and FAST BUS INSTRUMENTS. A number of R and D programmes will be pursued for the finalisation of the 500-MW pressurised heavy water reactor as part of the nuclear power programme. Engineering facilities would be set up in DHRUVA for testing of prototype fuel elements for power reactors. In the area of heavy-water production, test facilities would be set up for a better understanding of the existing processes and for developing new processes. In the area of isotope technology, a whole new range of agro-chemicals, radio-tracers and radio-pharmaceuticals will be developed. An in-house cyclotron will be set up for the development and production of short-lived and positron-emitting radio nucleides with applications in medicine.
17.162 In the area of basic research, the DHRUVA (reactor) and Pelletron (accelerator) facilities will be used for carrying our research in physical and chemical sciences. Research would be carried out on isotope-based aspects in agricultural productivity, and refinement of techniques for diagnosis and control of diseases. Work in biotechnology and enzyme engineering, where a good base has been created, will continue.
17.163 Variable Energy Cyclotron (VEC): At this national facility, it is proposed to enhance the computational system so as to make it usable for online data acquistion in tandem with the machine. With the addition of a heavy-ion-source external injection system, the scope of the machine is being widened for undertaking work in the field of heavy ion physics.
17.164 Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT): A new Centre, based on the expertise and experience of BARC, but independent of it in terms of infrastructural support has been initiated at Indore.The new Centre will concentrate on comprehensive development of expertise in all types of lasers and laser applications, especially of the high-powered, pulsed-variety fusion technologies, and also, accelerator technology of both linear and ring-type machines, capable of producing particle beams in the GeV range for spallation breeding. High technology research would include multi-beam laser fusion experiments and work on plasma focussing devices and pinches. The Centre will generate many supporting technologies such as high voltage pulse technology, r.f. technology, ion source technology, rapid cycling magnet technology, cryogenics and ultra-high vacuum technology, etc. Synchrotron Radiation Source (SRS) would be set up as a national facility.
17.165 Reactor Research Centre (RRC): RRC at Kal-pakkam has been set up with the primary aim of developing capabilities for the design, construction and operation of fast breeder power reactors with indigenous technological resources. The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) which is the first step in the programme, would be in operation soon. Work would be initiated on the 500-MWe prototye fast breeder reactor to be commissioned in the mid-90s. For this purpose, sodium technology related to fast reactors is being developed. Facilities will be created for post-irradiation examination of fuels and materials irradiated in FBTR. R and D work will be carried out for specifying and developing materials with improved properties for future fast reactor use and for understanding the physics of defects in materials which has a bearing on the phenomenon of radiation damage. Investigations will be carried out on the reprocessing and waste management aspects relevant to fast-reactor fuels. Detailed characterisation of sodium and fuel materials will be carried out. R and D will also be aimed at safety analysis of fast-reactor operations.
17.166 Atomic Minerals Division (AMD): As a result of exploration carried out in the past, AMD has identified extensive areas of igneous metamorphic and sedimentary formations in different parts of the shield areas and the Himalayas, which require detailed evalution. The activities of AMD will continue to be channelised towards not only increasing the inventory of uranium reserves but also augmenting the infrastructure and R and D facilities for further intensive exploration.
17.167 Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR):The major outlay is-for supporting new research programmes at the frontiers of astronomy and astrophysics, cosmic rays, gravitation, high energy physics, condensed matter and semi-conductor-physics, chemical physics, moleculer biology, computer science and speech research, development of equipment for pelletron-based nuclear physics programmes, etc.
17.168 Tata Memorial Centre (TMC): TMC has proposed to expand its existing programme by. setting up a new Centre. The thrust would be towards organisation of a bone marrow transplant unit, establishment of a division of laboratory medicine, newer radiation therapy, techniques, etc. In addition, the facilities at the Cancer Research Institute would be augmented and strengthened for undertaking R and D work in the emerging field of biotechnology, particularly relating to molecular genetics, viral oncogenesis and hybridomas.
117.169 Saha Insitute of Nuclear Physics (SINP): The proposals include setting up of an electron microscope facility and research in the areas of theoretical and experimental nuclear physics, hot plasma, and atomic and molecular chemistry.
17.170 Institute of Physics, Bhubaneshwar: The areas of work proposed include setting of an electron accelerator and research in atomic physics, nuclear physics solid state physics and material sciences.
17.171 National Programmes: Giant Metre. Wavelength Radio Telescope (GMRT) identified by the Steering Group on Science and Technology, will be set up as a national facility.
17.172 A National Centre for analytical characterisation of high-purity materials will also be set up as a national facility.
17.173 In addition, two programmes of a general national character will be initiated under the auspices of DAE. These are: (a) Fundamental research in biological sciences, and (b) Homi Bhabha Centre for Science Education.
Space Science and Technology
17.174 The thrust of the Indian space programme has been to develop skills and capabilities to design and build satellites and satellite launch vehicles; to define areas of application such as telecommunication, broadcasting and remote sensing, and to design and fabricate instrumentation for such applications; and to commission and utilise operational application systems to ensure the benefits of space science and technology for the socio-economic development of the nation. The Indian space programmes are directed towards the goal of achieving self-reliance in the use of space technology for national development. The programme of the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is executed through the eight centres/units namely Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Trivan-drum; Space Applications Centre (SAC), Ahmedabad;ISRO Satellite Centre (ISAC), Bangalore; Sriharikota Ranges (SHAR), Sriharikota; Auxiliary Propulsion System Unit (APSU), Bangalore and Trivandrum; Development and Educational Communication Unit (DECU), Ahmedabad; National Remote Sensing Agency (NRSA), Hyderabad; and Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), Ahmedabad.
17.175 Space Profile (1980-90): The major missions/ objectives envisaged in the approved space profile for the decade 1980-90 are: to develop and launch an Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IPS) for effective utilisation of remote sensing technology and to promote the establishment of national resources survey and management system; to improve the technology and the payload and orbital capabilities of the SLV-3 (launch vehicle) through the development of variants (ASL/PSLV) for enhanced application; to acquire ability to launch satellites to geosynchronous orbit; applications in communications, meteorology etc., to accelerate the indigenisation of the space segment of the INSAT system and replace the space segment by an Indian-built satellite; and to enhance the capabilities of ISRO Telemetry Tracking and Telecommunication network (ISTRAC) as well as the national test and launching ranges required to meet the space programmes outlined above. The investments relate both to the project expenditure as well as various supporting facilities required, e.g., propellant production, tracking networks, space qualification and testing equipment, etc.
17.176 Seventh PlanThrusts: Space activities carried out during the last two decades have reached a stage where investments made in Research and Development are beginning to fructify in terms of the ability to establish national operational space services for meeting the objectives laid down. The main thrust in the Seventh Plan will be to make the satellite-based domestic broadcasting, communications and remote sensing operational, based largely on indigenous satellite and launch systems. Significant progress will be made in interlocking the various segments of the national space effort, by completing the linkages between launch vehicle, spacecraft, application and utilisation programmes. Reducing external dependence and rapid development of Indian launch vehicles for operational satellites are integral to these objectives. Concomitant organisational and infrastructural changes would be implemented.
17.177 Programmes: Three indigenous spacecraft series are required for providing the operational services expected from the Space Programme on a continued basis: (i) 150-kg-class satellite series for low-earth mission in science/technology applications (SROSS); (ii) 1000-kg-class polar-orbiting remote sensing satellite (IRS); and (iii) successive geostationary spacecraft for broadcasting, communications and meteorology for continuation and further development of the Indian National Satellite (INSAT) system. The corresponding three indigenous launch vehicles for these satellites are to be developed and made operational. The first combination (SROSS/ASLV), will be made operational during the Seventh Plan with a flight every 1 to 1 -1 /4 years. One IRS launch is targetted every 2 to 2-V2 years from 1986 to sustain the resources management system. From 1988 onwards spacecraft will be launched by the indigenous PSLV launchers.
17.178 The first launch of an indigenous proto-INSAT/ INSAT/2 test spacecraft is targetted for 1988 and the second for 1990. Every attempt will be made during the Seventh Plan to ensure that subsequent INSAT-2 operational missions would be launched by the Indian Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV), after completing its development and first flight test in 1990/91. The optimal configurations for indigenous INSAT spacecraft and GSLV are currently being defined. The INSAT-2 test spacecraft development had begun before the close of the Sixth Plan, while the cryogenic engine systems for converting the PSLV to the geosynchronous launcher are planned for the Seventh Plan period.
17.179 The major efforts of all ISRO/DOS Centres and Units would be oriented towards realising these mission targets.
17.180 Pre-investment R and D for the missions of the Eighth Plan, and advanced R and D for the period beyond will be energised with defined priorities.
17.181 Linkages: The significant outlays for the ongoing and new projects would call for a new phase in strengthening the linkages between the space programme and Indian industry, even as progress in operational national services in broadcasting, communications and remote sensing interlink the space efforts with a growing number of other national user sectors. The space programme has already catalysed these linkages; it must now maintain the tempo by sustaining the space services and meeting the growing expectations it has generated.
17.182 Major complementary investments have already been made for utilisation of satellite-based communications, TV and radio broadcasting and meteorological services by various national agencies.
17.183 A National Natural Resources Management System (NNRMS), is being evolved. A national network of five regional centres and a few utilisation cells will be established as a part of IPS utilisation programme. Utilisation of satellite-based remote-sensed data would be a crucial element of NNRMS. Assistance will be provided to various State Governments to develop the applications and utilisation of remotesensed data.
17.184 The Department of Ocean Development (DOD) was created in 1981 and the Seventh Plan will be the first full plan of the department.
17.185 Ocean development programme for the Seventh Plan would focus attention on:
Salient features of the above programmes are briefly described below.
17.186 Antarctic Programme: India has acceded to the Antarctic Treaty, which will be coming up for review in 1991. It is necessary that by then India has two well-established, permanently-manned stations in Antarctica, to obtain detailed knowledge relating to the various aspects of the Antarctic resources and climatic aspects; organisation of expeditions; running of research stations'; operation of research and supply vessels; and participation in international research and information dissemination efforts. Many Indian institutions, including universities, national laboratories, the Indian Navy and various Government agencies are participating in this programme. It is proposed to establish an autonomous Antarctic Research Centres (in India) to take full responsibility for the programme. Five more expeditions to the Antarctic would be undertaken, one during each year of the Plan. It is also proposed to commission an ice-breaker vessel.
17.187 Coastal Reseach Programme: The principal goal of coastal management is to recover or preserve resources of value in the offshore area without increasing the burden of natural and man-made stress to a point where either the physical environment or its users suffer serious loss. The following research programmes are proposed:
17.188 Coastal-Research Vessels (CRV) are proposed to be acquired and this programme would be undertakenin consultation with DOEn, Coast Guard, Fisheries Research Institutes, ONGC, IMD, the Navy and the island administrations.
17.189 Marine Environment Programme: A network of stations, for monitoring pollution, weather and ocean parameters along the Indian coast and offshore areas, are proposed to be established in collaboration with a number of other organisations, viz., DOEn, Universities, NIO, ONGC, Coast Guard, the Navy and IMD.
17.190 Polymetallic Nodules Programme: With the status of pioneer investor, India is poised for a major programme in deep-sea mining. Extensive surveys have been carried out in the central Indian ocean to identify sites for mining. Commercial mining of the nodules in the mid-nineties appears to be a possibility. Further survey and assessment work will be done, and technologies for mining and processing developed through pilot plants after examining all possibilities.
17.191 Survey and assessment of resources: India has in its jurisdiction approximately 2 million sq km of sea areas as its Exculsive Economic Zone. A gross assessment of both living and. non-living resources would be made all over the zone, with some detailed surveys in specific areas in the deep sea, which would appear to be most attractive for exploitation. This programme will be implemented under contract from the DOD by organisation such as National Institutes of Oceanography (NIO), Naval Hydrographic Office (NHO), Geological Survey of India (GSI), Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) etc.
17.192 Human resources development: In order to generate the manpower needed for work in this area and improve the quality of higher education, a number of steps are proposed to be taken, including special courses in marine sciences, strengthening of facilities relating to oceanography at various academic centres, creation of centres of excellence in various areas of oceanography, etc. These would be formulated and implemented in consultation with the UGC.
17.193 Promotion of basic research: To augment and improve our knowledge of marine environment, basic studies would be carried out in marine biology, physical and chemical oceanography, marine geology and geophysics, palaeontology and others. Some programmes on the development of marine technologies would also be initiated in joint consultation with the Ministry of Defence including DRDO, the shipyards, etc.
17.194 Marine instrumentation, calibration and testing facilities: It is proposed to develop facilities for design, development and maintenance of marine instruments and set up calibration and testing laboratories.
17.195 Development of underwater technology: This programme relating to submersibles will be undertaken under the overall supervision of DOD and will be executed under contract by agencies like IIT (Madras), Hindustan Shipyard Ltd., Mazagaon Docks, Naval Science and Technology Laboratory NSTL and Bharat Heavy Plates and Vessels Limited (BHPV).
17.196 Contract with industry: Engineering, electronics, chemical and other industries will be identified and these industries will be given development contracts by DOD to design and manufacture critical systems and components for marine programmes.
17.197 All-India coordinated programmes: A few programmes have to be designed specifically as inter-institutional marine technology development projects like:
(i) remote sensing of oceanographic parameters (NIO, NNRMS), (ii) telemetry data buoy systems (DOD, IMD and ISRO), (iii) oceanographic towers (DOD, IMD, ONGC and the Port Trust), and (iv) underwater navigation system (NIO, NPOL and NSTL.)
17.198 The economics, management, legal and organisational aspects of implementing several programmes for the development and utilisation of marine technology would have to be worked out. It is proposed to start an All India Coordinated Programme in ocean management which will encompass these fields.
17.199 Development of ocean data base: The National Oceanographic Data Centre, now located at NIO, would be upgraded and made into an autonomous centre under DOD to acquire, process, document, store, retrieve and disseminate data and information on the most advanced lines.
17.200 Other programmes: In addition, programmes on Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC), Wave Energy and production of Marine Chemicals, Drugs and Food from the sea would be undertaken on a pilot basis. Survey of marine living resources along the coasts and screening and chemical investigations of marine algae would also be taken up.
Science and Technology
17.201 The Department of Science and Technology (DST) is primarily concerned with the promotion of carefully identified new and emerging areas of science and technology, and coordination of multi-institutional and interdisciplinary activities in areas of national relevance.
17.202 The SACC Secretariat is located in the Department. DST also provides secretarial support and implementing mechanisms for activities of National Biotechnology Board (NBTB), National Science and TechnologyEntrepreneurship Development Broad (NSTEDB) and National Council for Science and Technology Communication (NCTSC).
17.203 The Department supports a number of autonomous research institutions as part of its grant in aid programme, and major survey organisations like Survey of India (SOI) and National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation (NATMO).
17.204 Recently the India Meteorological Department and three institutions, namely Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Indian Institute of Geomagnetism and Indian Institute of Astrophysics, have been transferred from the Department of Civil Aviation to DST. On the other hand, the schemes relating to technology utilisation, National Information System on Science and Technology (NIS-SAT) and the work of the two public sector undertakings, namely, Central Electronics Limited (CEL) and National Research and Development Corporation (NRDC) have been transferred to the newly created Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR).
17.205 The efforts initiated in the Sixth Plan for identifying thrust areas, and supporting programmes in frontline areas in various disciplines, will be strengthened and consolidated, so that excellence in selected fields in science would be nurtured on a selective basis. In doing so, linkages with other scientific agencies, national laboratories, public and private sector undertakings and user and beneficiary elements would be established. Major facilities would be created wherever necessary.
17.206 Special efforts would be made to ensure that a larger number of the scientific community in educational and research institutions are provided opportunities for frontline areas of research, sophisticated instruments and research facilities will be set up through inter-agency mechanisms at the national level which will be available to all users.
17.207 Science promotion programmes: The science promotion programme will also give emphasis to science and society-related activities, e.g., involvement of young scientists, women scientists, retired scientists, SC/ST, weaker sections etc. Special emphasis will be laid on application of S and T for rural development programmes.
17.208 Under the R and D schemes, efforts would be made to consolidate the activities of Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC). Several new units are proposed to be set up in thrust areas like atomic collisions, material characterisation, X-ray crystallography, laser spectroscopy, through Intensification of Research in High Priority Areas (IRHPA). It is proposed to set up a phytotron as a national facility.
17.209 The activities of Regional Sophisticated Instrumentation Centres (RSIC) would be further intensified for optimum utilisation of the equipment in the existing centres. The science promotion programme will continue to be based on the principles enunciated in the Scientific Policy Resolution (SPR).
17.210 Increased emphasis would be given to the implementation of the Technology Policy Statement (TPS).
17.211 Sectoral Programmes: While promoting new areas in science and technology, sectoral programmes would be taken up in the areas of earth sciences which will include meteorological research, arid and semi-arid zone research, etc.
17.212 Major programmes are also to be launched in atmospheric sciences and natural disaster studies, especially in the fields of weather prediction and atmospheric modelling, cloud physics, atmospheric boundary layer studies, radiation studies, cyclone research, weather modification research, etc. These programmes will be executed by a large number of concerned groups and institutions in the country and coordinated by DST.
17.213 In view of the national importance attached to the question of manpower development in the areas of science and technology, and to work towards a matching of educational planning with investments being made in S and T system and its corresponding personnel needs, the Department plans to build up an information base through comprehensive surveys.
17.214 Since not much emphasis was given to engineering sciences in the Sixth Plan, it would be taken up as a major activity in the Seventh Plan. The effort would be to establish a firm R and D base in engineering sciences to meet the requirements of various economic sectors as well as to carry out research in frontline areas relevant to future technologies.
17.215 Based on activities initiated and progressed during the Sixth Plan, the Department proposes to undertake major national programmes relating to an appropriate management information system, and to establishing the programme of national coordination of testing and calibration facilities.
17.216 As part of the technology development projects, concerted efforts would also be the made in areas connected with new fibers and composites, ceramics, cryogenics etc.
17.217 S and T enterpreneurship: The National Science and Technology Enterpreneurship Development Board,set up during the Sixth Five Year Plan, has evolved specific major programmes for implementation. These relate to: the setting up of S and T entrepreneurship Parks (STEP); undertaking programmes for entrepreneurial development; programmes connected with information dis-semination; development of S and T based self-employment schemes, etc.
17.218 S and T Communication: The National Council for S and T Communication was set up during the Sixth Plan for formulation of a national plan for popularisation of science and technology and development of the scientific temper. Emphasis will be given to specific action plans such as:training of S and T communicators; setting up of appropriate infrastructures for diffusion and dissemination of S and T information connected with the popularisation programme, e.g., National S and T Information Bureau; support for voluntary organisations working on these problems; programmes to make full use of modern electronic techniques (radio, TV, VCR/VTR etc.); orchestration and coordination of programmes in this area being undertaken by various agencies; etc.
17.219 Biotechnology: A national programme in the emerging area of biotechnology had been initiated. The National Biotechnology Board (NBTB) was set up during the Sixth Plan, as an apex coordinating body, to identify, coordinate and oversee priority areas of development in this field, to build up required manpower and infrastructu-ral facilities, and to arrange for integrated industrial development and large-scale use of high technology products and processes based on the multidisciplinary areas of biotechnology. For the Seventh Plan, emphasis under the auspices of the NBTB will be given to programmes connected with: manpower development;initiation of new projects and programmes involving multidisciplinary and multi-institutional participation, together with necessary linkages with industry, involving-techno-economic feasibility studies; providing seed and risk capital in establishing large-scale applications using technologies developed within the country; and setting up manufacture (and associated R and D) of products based on modern biotechnology. The necessary infrastructure like germ plasma banks, pilot plant and other bio-engineering scale-up facilities, network of biotechnology information systems, animal house facilities, etc, would also be set up. In addition, production and manufacturing units for vaccine against major diseases, and production of plasma, serum, hormones and enzymes would be taken up. It is expected that by 1990 some of the major vaccines needed for the Expanded Programmes of Immunization would be produced indigenously on a large-scale, using modern techniques.
17.220 International S and T cooperation: Under the international S and T cooperation programmes, activities connceted with the setting up of a Centre for Science and Technology for Non-aligned Countries which were initiated during the Sixth Plan are expected to become operational. Programmes connected with Technical Cooperation among Developing Countries will also be strengthened.
17.221 The DST will continue to play a coordinating role for science and technology matters within the UN system. In addition an International Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (ICGEB) and an Indo-French Centre for promotion of advanced R and D would be set up. Efforts would be made to strengthen the offices of the science counsellors located in various countries.
17.222 Scientific surveys: Activities of the survey of India and the National Atlas and Thematic Mapping Organisation will be strengthened by introducing computerised information system, modern geodetic techniques and satellite geodesy in the survey activities of these organisations. The schemes devised under the Seventh Plan will lay strong emphasis on giving greater user satisfication, in terms of demands for client-specific maps and their wider dissemination.
17.223 S and T mission: A special feature during the Seventh Plan would be the undertaking of S and T missions. The objective would be to accomplish specified tasks with high visibility. A significant S and T component should be involved in the fulfilment of these tasks. Such an approach will foster relevance, provide motivation and automatically establish organic linkages, which are live and working, between the concerned sectors. Organisational structures would be created for coordination, identification and monitoring of important S and T missions, on an inter-agency basis. It is also proposed to set up an Interministerial Mission Approval Board as a focal point for approvals, policy directions, monitoring and overall coordination. In the identified areas, interdisciplinary groups would be set up for preparing project documents.
17.224 Through the above-mentioned efforts, DST would continue to play the role of a coordinating department for promotion and advancement of science and technology activities.
17.225 Activities in the field of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences and related areas are being earned out by the India Meteorological Department (IMD), and three autonomous Institues, viz., Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM) and Indian Institute of Geomagenetism (IIG).
17.226 The efforts in the area of meteorology by IMD and IITM during the Seventh Plan would seek to improvemeteorlogical services provided to the users and beneficiaries and also to carry out reserch and development activities required to effect an improvement in the efficiency and accuracy of these services. IIA and IIG would continue to be engaged in research in the fields of astrophysics and geomagnetism.
17.227 India Meteorological Department: The major thrust of the department would be modernisation of facilities.
17.228 Replacement of obsolete equipment: With a view to increasing efficiency in providing meteorological services to sectors like agriculture, flood control, etc. it is proposed to replace some of the major equipments like radio theodolites, wind-finding-cum-weather radars, cyclone detection radars, X-band storm-detection high-pressure hydrogen generators, etc. In addition, some obsolete tele-communication equipment like VHF transre-ceivers, communication receivers, facsimile recorders, teleprinter machines, etc. would also have to be replaced.
17.229 Improvement of forecast and cyclone warning system: Forecasting services are to be improved to meet operational needs, through modernisation of the upper air network and radar network. It is proposed to install modern aeronautical and meteorological instruments, a message-switching computer, RTT and facsimile facilities, wind-finding equipment and stormdetection radars in some of the major locations.
17.230 Augmentation of computer facilities: The existing computer in Delhi has practically completed its life expectancy. It is proposed to install a high speed and highly versatile super computer system in the Northern Hemisphere Analysis Centre which would be functioning as a regional forecast centre for aviation purposes in South Asia, and also to execute some of the major programmes like IMAP, monsoon studies, world climate programme, etc. Since the thrust in the meteorology programme would be directed towards a 10-day medium-range weather forecast, an appropriately large computer system would be needed for developing a meteorology data bank at the global and national level and for modelling computations.
17.231 Improvement in surface and rainfall network: A major attempt will be made to departmentalise as many observatories as practicable so that the information and data on surface and rainfall are realistic and dependable.
17.232 Space meteorology: To fully utilise INSAT-IB satellite, additional data collection platfroms will be installed. Aircraft-to-satellite data relay system would be introduced. In addition, the disaster warning system would be strengthened. Facilities will be established for development of software for processing data from proto-INSAT.
17.233 Agro-meteorological advisory service: For improvement of agro-meterological advisory services and advance weather warning system to the farmer, a committee has been constitued. The recommendation of this committee will be implemented through a mission-oriented approach by intensifying the existing schemes like agro-meteorology (computer modelling for medium-range weather forecasting), instrumentation and communications.
17.234 Construction work: It is proposed to provide a certain number of office/operational buildings and residential accommodation in some of the priority programmes.
17.235 In addition to the above thrust areas, 16 on-going schemes would be continued and three new schemes, viz., physical meteorology, antarctic meteorology, and international cooperation programmes would be initiated.
17.236 Indian Institute of Astrophysics: Four on-going schemes would be continued. The major thrust will be on maximum utilisation of the 234-cm telescope as a national facility.
17.237 Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology: The major programme would be centerd on circulation and climate modelling, forecasting research, airsea interaction studies, weather modification of cold clouds, radio-meteorology with emphasis on remote sensing, etc. It is also proposed to acquire a highspeed computer.
17.238 Indian institute of Geomagnetism: The major efforts of the Institute would be in the areas of space geomagnetism, solid earth studies and aeronomy. Several infrastructural facilities are proposed to be created, like a computer centre, a regional geo-physical centre, workshop facilities, unit for Antarctica studies, network of micropulsation recording stations, etc.
Scientific and Industrial Research
17.239 The Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) was created in January, 1985 as a part of the Ministry of Science and Technology. All matters concerning the Council of Scientific and Industrial Re-sarch (CSIR), National Research Development Corporation (NRDC), Central Electronics Limited (CEL), National Information System on Science and Technology (NIS-SAT) and a few schemes relating to technology promotion, development and utilisations, etc., transferred from the DST, are now under the purview of DSIR. This Department has been set up with a view to bringing about greater coordination between scientific research and industrial development, and to establish close linkages between the national laboratories of the CSIR and the major socio-economic Ministries/Departments.
17.240 Council of Scientific and Industrial Research:The overall strategy of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) will be to consolidate, stren-ghten and modernise the existing infrastructure, and to initiate and implement nationally identified programmes and projects in collaboration with S and T agencies, Ministries, Departments, public sector undertakings, universities and so on.
17.241 A 'derived' Plan component, i.e., specific R and D requirements of certain programmes and projects identified by the Ministries and Dapartments would also be carried out by the CSIR laboratories on the basis of specific funding.
17.242 CSIR will carry out exercises to identify the lacunae that have prevented some technologies developed by it from being utilised. New fields of activities would be preferentially taken up in frontier areas or on being funded by the end-users.
17.243 Efforts will be made to develop technology packages including the necessary design and engineering inputs, for which end-users and engineering consultants will be associated with the CSIR efforts.
17.244 Design engineering capabilities will be enhanced in concerned laboratories. Wherever necessary, pilot plant facilities will be created.
17.245 It is proposed to complete the establishment of the Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad, Regional Research Laboratory, Bhopal, a new campus of Structural Engineering Research Centre at Gaziabad and CSIR Complex at Palampur, Himachal Pradesh. Laboratories will be encouraged to carry out forecasting and futuristic studies, so that they can plan their programme and activities well in advance.
17.246 Modelling and simulation studies, and computer-aided and optimisation studies would also be carried out.
17.247 Planning, monitoring and evaluation of projects and activities would be intensified, policy studies and studies on the impact of science on society, technology assessment and studies on national and international research trends would also be undertaken.
17.248 Special programmes on the inculcation of scientific temper and awareness, and involvement of younger scientists in the S and T programmes, are also envisaged.
17.249 An effort would be made to forge linkages between national laboratories and importers of technologies and especially with the in-house R and D centres of the public sector enterprises so that imported technologies would not only be absorbed and adapted but also updated. In each area at least one technology will be identified and developed to internationally acceptable standards, in cooperation with identified users of technology, so that each technology mission could be accomplished.
17.250 CSIR will continue to support extramural research in universities and other institutions of higher learning by providing fellowships and associateships and grants for research schemes, particularly in emerging areas.
17.251 Modern concepts of R and D management, project selection and monitoring, and cost control and systems to support them, will be introduced both in the national laboratories and at CSIR headquarters.
17.252 The important areas to be taken up in the Seventh Plan are: geophysics; ocean science and technology; petroleum; coal; renewable sources of energy;chemicals and petrochemicals; drugs and pharmaceutic-als; oils and fats; electrochemistry; natural products (cultivation and processing); health and applied biology;biotechnology, cellular and molecular biology; food and post-harvest technology; leather; housing, buildings and roads; roads and transportation; structure; machinery development; metallurgy and metals; corrosion; mining;environmental technology; glass, ceramics and refractories; aeronautics; computer-aided studies in chemical sciences; and technology for rural areas.
17.253 Some selected areas where basic research will be pursued are; radio sciences; material sciences; electronics; geophysics; chemical sciences; celloular and molecular biology and chemical biology.
17.254 Activities of the DSIR: One of the major efforts of the DSIR would be directed towards technology promotion, development and utilisation programmes. This would involve promotion and financial support of industrial research by and in industry; measures for utilisation of indigenously developed technologies; special programme for enhancing technology absorption and adaptation;technology evaluation and demonstration, etc. In this process, consultancy servives will be encouraged to assist transfer and trading in technology.
17.255 A national register of foreign collaborations will be maintained as part of these programmes.
17.256 The activities of the NRDC and R and D efforts of CEL would also the strengthened. It is also proposed to build up S and T information system in a more effective way through the network of NISSAT.
17.257 The Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) is the apex body for the formulation, coordination and promotion of biomedical research. The programmes are implemented through its permanent research institutes, centres of advanced research, research units, national multi-centric coordinated research programmes and research that it supports in institutions and universities. The research priorities have been identified according to the national health priorities, viz., control of communicable diseases (tuberculosis, leprosy, malaria, filariasis, cholera, typhoid and other enteric disorders, virus diseases); fertility control; programmes for maternal and child health and support for the expanded programmes of immunisation; control of nutritional and major metabolic disorders;strengthening of epidemiology and developing alternative strategies for health care delivery through the primary health care approach, for the fulfilment of the goal of Health for All by 2000 AD.
17.258 Seventh Plan-Strategy: In the Seventh Plan a conscious effort would be made to focus attention on the following strategies:
17.259 The thrust areas selected should be in congruence with the National Health Policy and the 20-Point Programme.
17.260 The task force approach that served well in the Sixth Plan would be pursued in the Seventh Plan, with further refinement in the light of past experiences (and mistakes).
17.261 Studies would be undertaken to enlarge the scientific basis of preventive medicine and health promotion; for example, demonstration projects with clearly defined objectives, methodologies and evaluation would be undertaken to serve as fore-runners for wider application in the health care system.
17.262 Simplified tests, which are specific and accurate for early recognition of diseases, and mass-applicable, would be developed; for example, immuno-diagnostic tests offer a whole new horizon for the study of the epidemiology of several rampant diseases, and for monitoring and evaluation of control measures.
17.263 Product development in the field of health has been a serious bottleneck in India, so far. A product development cell would therefore be established, not only for evaluating and validating promising products, but to take selected products to the commercial stage, with the help and guidance of professional experts in the field. It would also be necessary to establish centres for controlled clinical trials of the new products.
17.264 Close and effective linkages with social and behavioural-scientists and communication experts would be established, with a view to enhancing the effectiveness and acceptability of health technologies.
17.265 Problem-oriented and problem-solving research would be actively pursued. Pragmatic, result-oriented, 'do-it now' type of research porogrammes would be developed.
17.266 The Seventh Plan strategy would display a multidisciplinary approach to most of our health problems.
17.267 Linkages: Linkages between the biomedical research system and the health care system in the whole area of health services research would receive high priority. Special attention would be paid to linkages with industry.
17.268 Infrastructure development: The most critical element of the research infrastructure is the researcher. Greater efforts would be made to attract talented young people to a career in scientific research.
17.269 Greater attention would be paid to infrastructu-ral facilities such as laboratory animals, and tissue and cell culture facilities. A proper balance in the available research manpower across different disciplines will be ensured, and multi-disciplinary groups established.
17.270 A proper foundation for Health Services Research would be laid for application of available knowledge. For this purpose, the development of epidemiolo-gical skills and other fields such as operational research, systems analysis and data processing technologies would be needed.
17.271 The cutting edge of biomedical research today and in the near future lies in the new biology, i.e., immunology, cell biology, molecular biology, genetics including genetic engineering, hybridoma technologies, etc. Genetic engineering today represents a culmination of human creativity with great potential for human well-being., especially in the tropical areas. Special attention would be paid to this area.
17.272 Many of the diseases prevalent in India can be attributed to social, cultural end economic factors. Much can be achieved through a process of education on how human behaviour impinges health.
17.273 It is planned to abandon lines of research which are no longer relevant to our developmental goals or are unproductive. '
17.274 The development of any new drug/device takes an unduly long time-almost 7-10 years. Efforts would be made to shorten this time by reducing the pre-clinical toxicology period and by moving into programme introduction phase when the interim results show promising trends. This would be done without sacrificing safety and ethics.
17.275 Interaction with State Governments: One point of criticism has been that there is not sufficient interaction with the State Governments in research activities sponsored in the States by the Agencies. Efforts were made in the Sixth Plan to establish bridges with the State Governments. The integrated control offilariasis in Pondicherry is a good example. This programme would be further augmented.
17.276 Task forces: Task forces, multi-centric studies and networking of institutions proved to be effective strategies for mobilising talent throughout the country and for injecting a sense of urgency into research projects. These approaches will be further developed.
17.277 The global revival of interest in research on traditional medicine will be reflected in the efforts of ICMR in the Seventh Plan. The need for scientific and pragmatic inter-agency programmes in this field is emphasised.
17.278 Information systems: Informatics and communication (including publication) will be intensifed and augmented in order to bridge the existing gaps between researchers, health planners, policy makers and providers of health services as well as the users. Efforts will be made for regular feedback among these categories of personnel.
17.279 Under non-conmmunicable diseases, the thrust areas would cover mental health, cancer research, neurological sciences, occupational health, cardiovascular diseases and blindness.
17.280 Other programmes: Other programmes would include basic research in many areas, health care of tribal and other underprivileged sections of the population, prevention and therapy of disabilities and rehabilitation, high altitude research, health services research, basic research in new biology and other areas, traditional medicine, etc. These areas are of vital importance and of relevance to ensure the success of the Health for All Scheme by 2000 A.D.
17.281 With the momentum gained in the Sixth Plan, ICMR is now poised to take more rapid strides in providing R and D support for the fulfilment of the national health policies. Health systems research as well as basic and clinical research will need to be developed in a selective, balanced and effective manner.
17.282 A concious effort will be made to enlarge the scientific base of preventive medicine and health promotion. Quality and relevance will be the watchwords of the Seventh Plan.
17.283 Activities in the area of Forensic Science fall within the purview of the Ministry of Home Affairs. The Forensic Science laboratories are required to provide high quality and reliable data, often at short notice, for use in legal proceedings. The Central Forensic Science Laboratories are located at New Delhi, Calcutta, Chandigarh and Hyderabad. The first is under the control of the CBI, and the other three are under the Bureau of Police Research and Development.
17.284 The Institute of Criminology and Forensic Science imparts training in various aspects of criminology and forensic science, through short-term courses, etc. There is an important area of scientific examination of documents under the Bureau of Police Research and Development. The overall work in all these establishments cover:drugs and poisons; residues from arson; food poisoning;analysis of rapes; metallic residues and trace elements profile analysis; ballistics; bio-assays; pattern recognition including fingerprints; microscopic examinations; investigation of materials due to a sabotage, detection of forgery in signatures, handwriting; etc.
17.285 In all these areas, techniques and methodologies have undergone radical changes with advances in science and technology. With modern techniques, it is possible to carry our microanalysis, for instance, at exceedingly low levels, with very low signal-to-noise ratios, speedily and very reliably. It is clear that these institutions require sophisticated scientific inputs.
17.286 During the Seventh Plan period these insti-tuions have to be developed as S and T institutions which can function better in an independent autonomous fashion than as subordinate/attached offices. They will need to be modernised in terms of equipment and manpower capabilities. There would be need for appropriate expert advisory committees which can go into details of the equipment, staffing etc., required, to review the scientific programmes and capabilities, and ensure linkages with related areas of activity and capability in the country. There is need to carry out research on a multidisciplinary basis and oriented to problems peculiar to the country. Appropriate linkages would have to be established between the Central Laboratories and the State Forensic Science Laboratories;the latter are managed by the respective State Governments, and the more recent ones are better equipped. All these laboratories have a very important role to play in the areas relating to law and order; they cannot perform this role without substantial' and continuous inputs of modern science and technology.
17.287 Telecommunication is of paramount importance for the police force, and it contributes very substantially to their efficiency and efficacy. One of the systems proposed in this connection would use INSATto establish interconnections between a large number of 'Hubs'. Some of the major facilities to be introduced/used are: teleprinter communication or radio (RTTY) using intelligent terminals, etc. for transmission of messages with high speed over the RTTY links; mobile earth stations at sensitive places for establishing emergency communication links at very short notice through satellite between Delhi and the rest of the country; multi-access mobile and radio systems with dialling facilities in metropolitan cities to provide communication between mobiles and also to control stations or public communication networks; and solar panels as alternative sources of power supply in border areas and other isolated places. A technical expert group would be set up to examine the possibility of using meteor-burst communication links between State capitals, etc. Linkages with P and T, Department of Space, Department of Electronics, IITs and CSIR laboratories would be established.
S and T Component of various socio-economic sectors
17.288 It has been stated earlier that one of the major efforts during the Seventh Plan period would be to ensure that S and T is regarded as an integral component of the plans and programmes of all major socio-economic sectors. A large number of thrust areas/programmes to be taken up during the Seventh Plan have been identified in the major sectors; these are reflected under the respective Chapters; in this Plan document. It has been suggested that Standing Science and Technology Advisory Committees and Empowered Committees be set up by the concerned Ministries and Departments to identify, analyse and formulate specific proposals. In the implementation of the S and T missions, the socio-economic Ministries would be very closely associated.
17.289 The Steering Group on Science and Technology has identified a large number of S and T missions; these need to be implemented on a priority basis. In this endeavour, it is suggested that the Ministries make the fullest use of the existing research and development structures and sponsor research programmes of relevance to their activities to the national laboratories so that the available financial outlays and the existing infrastructure would be fully utilised.
17.290 Government has accepted, in principle, that the budget of all S and T departments/agencies/institutions (Plan and Non-Plan) should be formulated each year on the principle of zero-base budgeting. This will ensure that the most important tasks will receive the highest priority and allocation. A detailed procedure to introduce this system from the Seventh Plan period is under tinalisation. The plan outlays for DAE, DOEn, DOD, DST, DSIR, DOS, and Forensic Science and Police Wireless are given in Annexure 17.2
17.291 For the S and T component of major socio-economic Ministries and Departments, wherever it has been possible to indicate, specific allocations are given in Annexure 17.3
ANNEXURE17.1: Illustrative List of Science and Technology Missions
Annexure-17.2 : Anticipated Expenditure for the Sixth Five Year plan and outlays
for the Seventh Five Year Plan 1985-90 (Rs. crores)
Notes: + Including
Rs. 35.07 Crores under States/UTs.
Expenditure for the Sixth Plan and
Notes: As information on S and T outlays for several sectors in the Seventh Plan was not available, the relevant columns are left blank. * Included under Chemicals iSi Fertilisers sector.
Medical colleges will be developed to function as a link between the Regional Cancer Centres and the peripheral health infrastructure.
11.31 Mental healthOrganised and planned mental health care activities are vital for obviating the ill-effects of major socio-economic changes. A beginning in this direction is proposed in the Seventh Plan by according priority to strengthening the existing psychiatry departments, promotion of community psychiatry by provision of drugs and services through the primary health care system and organisation of training programmes.
11.32 Dental careThe twin problems of peridental disease and caries need to be addressed on a national footing. Pilot projects would be taken up to provide basic dental care facilities and to organise counselling at primary health care level. An objective of these pilot projects would also be to develop organised dental health care facilities as an integral part of the school health services.
11.33 Goitre/idoThe iodine deficiency diseases control programme will be mounted on an extensive scale in the Seventh Plan through coordination of the activities of all the concerned agencies. The primary thrust of the programme would be iodisation of all edible salt on a time-bound basis so as to ensure availability of iodised salt to the community throughout the country by the terminal year of the Seventh Plan.
Blood Bank and Transfusion Services
11.34 Organised blood-bank and blood transfusion services will be further developed with the active participation of the Centre, the States and voluntary organisations. Alongside attempts will be made to ensure quality control/standards and to organise the required training for medical and para-medical personnel.
11.35 Other ProgrammesThe prevalence of preventable disability in the country is unacceptably high. Preventive and prophylactic programmes, such as immunisation against polio and vitamin 'A' prophylaxis will be pursued vigorously. Simple, accessible and affordable rehabilitation technologies are needed.
11.36 The rising incidence of accidents including the high prevalence of bums, calls for a vigorous programme of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. The high incidence of industrial hazards and accidents, highlighted by the Bhopal gas tragedy, underscores the urgency of developing an adequate Industrial Health Service. This calls for coordinated and effective monitoring and surveillance of the environment within and around industrial locations.
11.37 Undergraduate educationIn view of the increasing unemployment of medical graduates and also the imbalance in the ratio of doctors to para-medical workers, establishment of new medical colleges or increase in the intake capacity of the existing institutions is not supported as a matter of policy. This position would continue in the Seventh Plan period also. Priority would, however, be accorded to improving the quality of training and making it need-based and community-centred.
11.38 The Reorientation of Medical Education (ROME) scheme would be restructured to ensure its successful operationalisation towards the objectives of active involvement of medical institutions in the promotion of primary health care and imparting training to undergraduates, preferably in rural community set-up.
11.39 Postgraduate educationPostgraduate.medical education in the basic and broad specialities would be rationalised with a view to removing imbalance and make it need-based and community-oriented. Postgraduate training facilities in public health, community medicine and health management would need to be substantially increased so that health managers can benefit from such training. Development of specialised institutions and training in superspecialities would be encouraged in the public and the private sectors.
Training and Manpower Development
11.40 Priority would be assigned to promoting continuing education facilities to all categories of staff. Supportive training and on-the-job training would be strengthened as an essential element of continuing education. Secondly, training of para-professionals and auxiliary personnel would be accorded high priority to meet the community health services requirement. Efforts will be made to correct imabalancs and improve quality. An attempt will be made to direct vocationalisation of 10+2 stream of education to develop these functionaries. Thirdly, the possibility of establishment of universities of Health Sciences with the objective of linking all the training centres and institutions funcionally on State, regional and national levels will be explored. Fourthly, efforts will be made to encourage States to participate fully in their own manpower development activities. District-level planning will be introduced towards realising the objective of promotion of the decentralised planning process. Establishment of health manpower planning and development bureaus, etc., will be accorded special attention.
Medical and Health Services Research
11.41 Research efforts in several problem area initiated through the thrust areas and task-force approach in the Sixth Plan would be further intensified. Priority would also.
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