8th Five Year Plan (Vol-2)
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Agricultural and Allied Activities || Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation || Irrigation, Command Area Development and Flood Control || Environment and Forests || Industry and Minerals || Village and Small Industries and Food Processing Industries || Labour and Labour Welfare || Energy || Transport || Communication, Information and Broadcasting || Education, Culture and Sports || Health and Family Welfare || Urban Development || Housing, Water Supply and Sanitation || Social Welfare || Welfare and Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes || Special Area Development Programmes || Science and Technology || Plan Implementation and Evaluation

AGRICULTURE AND ALLIED ACTIVITIES

Agricultural Inputs:

Seeds:

1.15.1 Despite the steps taken in the earlier Plans, seeds production and distribution arrangements would require continuing attention. The private sector has increasingly expanded its operations in seed production and marketing, particular by the high value materials such as the hybrid seeds of several crops like vegetables, cotton, oilseeds etc. However, in many areas, State intervention through its own undertakings has to play a critical role in meeting the requirements of quality seeds in every part of the country. Varietal replacement follows in the trail of coninuing research on evolution of better varieties from the point of view of yield or quality of grains or relative tolerance to pest/diseases. Multiplication of the recent varieties has to be streamlined, if the ddmands built up through extension efforts are to be met in full.

Fertilizers:

1.15.2 To support crop production at the levels contemplated, the fertilizer consumption will have to be pushed up and can be expected to attain a level of 18.3 million tonnes in terms of nutrients. The emphasis will be on ensuring balanced application of nutrients and on improving the application practices to get the maximum benefits. Fertilizer use efficiency will, in addition, be contingent upon ensuring that absence or deficiency of micro- nutrients will not act as a drag on getting high response in terms of incremental production from application of principal nutrients viz. the Nitrogen, Phosphate or Potash - Use of bio-fertilizers, algae and recycling of organic wastes need to be promoted in an intense manner.

Plant Protection:

1.15.3 Integrated Pest Management (I.P.M), built around effective surveillance to study the pest buildup so that pesticidal chemicals are resorted to only when the economic threshold lines are crossed and the use of predators and parasites to control crop damaging pests will have to be spread amongst the farming community. Pest Management may also gain from the use of seed varieties with in-built resistance through genetic engineering. Systematic production of bio-control agents should become an important element of the total IPM effort. Some of the targets of key inputs in the Eighth Plan are indicated in Table 1.6.

Extension Services:

1.15.4 Agricultural extension services have to play a key role in disseminating the improved technologies amongst the farmers. While agricultural extension machinery was augmented and strengthened in previous plans, the emphasis will be on the continuous upgradation in technical knowledge and communication skills for effective transfer of technology. Linkage with research and training programmes will have to be strengthened. Besides, the extension work carried out by the State machinery and the ICAR-SAU research system, progressive farmers, voluntary organisations and extension work done by industry can be effective instruments in taking technology to the farmers. State support can enlarge their areas of operations. The special needs for

Table 1.6 Targets of Key Inputs Use/Consumption in Eighth Plan

S.No. Item Unit Assumed Base Level 1991-92 Plan Target 1996-97
I Certified Seeds Distribution Lakh Quintals 49.00 70.00
II Fertiliser Consumption Million Tonnes       
   i)Nitrogenous    8.50 11.50
ii)Phosphatic     3.60 5.00
   iii)Potassic    1.40 1.80
   iv)N+P+K        13.50 18.30
III. Pesticides(Tech Grad Material) '000 tonne 80.05 97.80
IV. HYV Programme Million Hectares 62.60 78.00

agricultural extension for women may call for a larger number of women extension workers to meet their requirements especially in areas where there are large number of women-headed farm families. Many projects have been taken up. with external assistance for providing improved extension services to women as also their training. This has to become a critical area of agricultural planning.

Watershed Development Programme:

1.16.1 The National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Areas is one of the most important programmes as it seeks to usher in agricultural development in the resource-poor vast tracts of rainfed and dry lands. Identification of micro-watersheds and preparation .of detailed development plans have been completed by most of the State Governments and vigorous implementation of the integrated approach for developing both infrastructure as well as production systems will be of utmost importance in the Eighth Plan. It is only by making NWDPRA, a truly peoples' movement that the problems of the rainfed region can be successfully overcome.

1.16.2 The Seventh Plan Centrally Sponsored Scheme of National Watershed Development Programme for Rainfed Agriculture (NWDPRA) has been modified on the basis of findings of evaluation studies for implementation of the Eighth Five Year Plan. The modified scheme provides 100% finance ( 75% grant and 25% loan to States). The revised guidelines entitled "WARASA" have been circulated to all the States/Union Territories. A list of blocks with less than 30% irrigation has been prepared for Rainfed Agriculture Technology with emphasis on people's participation.

1.16.3 An integrated and sustai liable approach for development of natural resources has been studied in terms of agro-climatic zones and subzones. In this direction, the Department of Space, which has developed a technology for rapid planning with Geographic Information System (GIS), plans for watershed development with the help of agricultural experts and local administration.

1.16.4 India is the second largest producer of fruits, vegetables and flowers. Other economic activities relating to silk, aquaculture products and processed foods have vast scope for raising self-employment opportunities in rural areas. Export of agricultural commodities is a major thrust area in the Eighth Plan. Programmes for development of appropriate post-harvest technology, provision of infrastructure at exit points of Airport/Seaport, modernisation of slaughter houses, creating large size cold- storage facilities and rationalisation of taxes and duties on imports and exports will be taken up during the Eighth Plan. Emphasis will also be placed on creation of a favourable climate for accelerating investment in development of infrastructure for export.

Western Ghats Development Programme

1.16.5 The general approach adopted during the Seventh Plan has been of taking up integrated development programme on compact watershed basis. Watersheds are identified and prioritised and activities like soil conservation, horticulture, fishery, animal husbandry, plantation etc. are taken up in the Western Ghats Development Programme (WGDP), taking taluka as the unit of development. During the Eighth Plan, the sub-plan approach to the talukas under WGDP with active involvement and participation of the people would be sought.

Agricultural Credit and Cooperation:

1.17.1 Development of cooperatives has been envisaged as a significant strategy to build strength in the people with limited means. The cooperative movement aims at saving the rural poor, small farmers, marginal farmers, agricultural labourers and small artisans from exploitation by money lenders. Today, India has a wide network of primary agricultural credit societies (PACS) at village level. At district and state level, cooperative federations have also been set up in almost all states.

1.17.2 Cooperatives have, over the years, significantly diversified their activities to include credit, banking, input distribution, agro-processing, storage and warehousing. In dairying and oil processing activities, cooperative sub sector has emerged as an important counterveiling factor to the private traders, for the benefit of both producers and consumers. At present, nearly 60% of the handlooms accounting for 30% of the total textiles production in the country are in cooperative sector. Nearly 30,000 artisans and industrial cooperatives are functioning. Cooperatives have also contributed significantly in the sphere of consumer protection. Given adequate freedom of action in their management, cooperatives can emerge strong and efficient.

1.17.3. Growth of cooperatives sector has not been uniform in all parts of the country. The primary reasons for this situation are control of cooperatives by dominant vested- interest groups, poor management, dependence of cooperatives on higher tiers and government for financial assistance and limited range of business activities. The function of thrift has not been given due importance by cooperatives leading to resource crunch and ultimately to their inability to serve the poor. The Agricultural Credit Review Committee (ACRC) and the Committee for Implementation of Recommendation of ACRC stressed on a programme of business development planning in respect of each PACS with a view to diversifying loan operations, generation of internal resources through deposit mobilisation and enlarging package of profitable non-credit services. The Working Group on Promotion of Self-Help Groups as sub-system in Primary Agricultural cooperatives have made important recommendations relating to the improvement of functioning of cooperatives. There is a need to strengthen the resource base of PACS to enable the group members to undertake investments necessary for expanding their production levels.

1.17.4. Cooperative efforts of small and marginal farmers in Kerala to organise procurement of inputs, their timely distribution and marketing of products have yielded rich dividends. The model can be extended to organise the weaker sections for investment in inputs for production, processing, storage and marketing, etc. 'through cooperative organisation during the Eighth Five Year Plan.

1.17.5 The strategy for cooperative credit development in the Eighth Plan would be as follows:

  1. Building up the cooperative movement as a self managed, self regulated and self reliant institutional set-up by giving more autonomy to cooperatives and by democratising the movement.
  2. Enhancing the capabilities of cooperative for enabling them to play a significant role in improving the productivity of the economy and in creating employment opportunities for the people living in rural areas for service of weaker sections viz. small fanners, labourers, workers, artisans, the scheduled castes scheduled tribes and women.
  3. Strengthening cooperative credit and organised structure in accordance with model laws and to make it competitive and viable.
  4. Extend adequate credit support to the programmes of national priority and poverty alleviation such as the Special Rice/food-grains Production Programme, National Oilseeds Development rogramme. Oil-seeds Production Thrust Programme, etc. Larger flow of funds for thrust areas i.e to dryland areas, minor irrigation, and wastelands development through non farm sector activities would be considered on prority.
  5. Appropriate linking of consumer cooperatives for implementing Public Distribution System for the benefit and protection of consumers interest will be ensured.
  6. Development and training of cooperative functionaries in professional management and introduction of suitable personnel management policy would meet the demand for professional managerial personnel in the cooperatives.
  7. Review of cooperatives with a view to liberalise the working of cooperative institutions and freeing them from bureaucratic control.

1.17.6 One of the major issues concerning the cooperative sector is the professionalisation of management. If the cooperatives have to compete in a more open economic regime, the State Governments will have to professionalise the management of cooperatives and especially the cooperative processing units, This is crucial for overall cooperative development vis-a-vis other sectors. For achieving this, it will be necessary to convince the State Governments of the need for granting functional autonomy to cooperatives.

1.17.7 Institutional finance is to be ensured for the thrust area activities to be undertaken in the Eighth Plan; some of th and thrust areas are: (i) Livestock improvement, soil and water conservation measures, reclamation of water-logged, saline, fallow land, etc. (ii) Minor irrigation and development of shallow tublewells, dug-wells, desilting of tanks/ponds, (iii) Agro-processing of horticultural produce and (iv) promotion of high yielding plantation crops in traditional and non-traditional areas, (v) animal husbandry and dairy development (including poultry, piggery and sericulture) and fisheries development. (vii) financial and other technical support to the non-farm sector and encouraging rural artisans and small rural enterprises, (viii) Measure for smooth and efficient functioning of the agricultural and rural development banks and adequate and timely availability of finance from the national level to the Primary Land Development Banks (PLDBs).

1.17.8 Demand for term loans in the agricultural sector, will be met with efforts to maintain smooth and efficient functioning of the agricultural and rural development banks. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development has also made a beginning to finance the non-farming sector covering artisans, agricultural labourers, cottage industries and small rural enterprises. This activity has to be intensified in the Eighth Plan so that the rural people, particularly women and youth, will be able to get gainful employment besides traditional agriculture.

1.17.9 The ACRC has critically examined the working of all the three credit structure and suggested that RRBs be merged with commercial banks as the commitee felt that they were "built-in non-viable", and proposed a National Cooperative Bank of India to replace the existing NABARD.

Storage and Warehousing

1.17.10 The total covered storage capacity available with FCI, CWC and SWCs and State agencies as on 1-7-1991 is estimated at 42.9 million tonnes as per the break-up given in Table 1.7.

Table-1.7 Covered Storage Capicity Agency-wise (Million Tonnes)

Agency Owned Hired Total
F.C.L 12.0 7.6 19.6
C.W.C. 5.0 1.8 6.8
S.W.Cs 6.8 2.7 9.5
State N.A. N.A. 7.0
Agencies         
TOTAL       42.9
Less storage capacity ofCWC/SWCs, already included under hired capacity ofFCI. 3.7
Net Capacity:       39.2

1.17.11. Additional storage capacity for food-grains proposed to be constructed during the Eighth Plan by FCI, CWC and SWCs has been estimated at 14.0 lakh tonnes. Besides, additional storage capacity of 20.0 lakh tonnes for storage of fertilisers and agricultural inputs, jute, cotton etc. would have to be created during the Eighth Plan. Specialised storage facilities for specific commodities including horticulture and other agricultural products for exports will have to be built up.

Rural Godowns

1.17.12 A scheme for rural godowns was launched by Dept. of Rural Development with the objective of prevention of distress sales of agricultural produce. By March 1991, 3354 rural godowns were reported to have been completed with a storage capacity of 18.33 lakh tonnes.

Cooperative storage and cold storages

1.17.13 In order to equip the cooperative with adequate godown facilties for promoting distribution of inputs and consumer goods and also to facilitate marketing of agricultural produce, efforts would be made to provide each viable primary agricultural credit society and marketing society with a godown of its own. "It is proposed to set up additional storage capacity of 21 lakh tonnes and additional 70 cold storages with 3.0 lakh tonnes of additional capacity during the Eighth Plan period.

Cooperative Processing

1.17.14 NCDC is assisting in the setting up of agro- industries - cooperative sugar factories, spinning units, dal and rice mills and many others. Yet, much. more is left to be done. Sugarcane growers cooperatives, now account for about 60% of the total sugar production in the country. Cooperative processing of cotton and oilseeds has also made rapid progress. Forty-nine new cooperative sugar factories, 28 additional cooperative spinning mills and 21 integrated oilseeds processing units are proposed .subject to availability of financial resources.

1.17.15 Agro-Processing of fruits and vegetables is a potential area for development of cooperatives of the farmers. These processing units should, ideally be part of integrated projects linking production with agro-processing and supporting by- products. The major weakness of the cooperative fruit and vegetable processing units are under utilisation of capacity and efficient technical and financial management. Efforts are to be made during the Eighth Plan for improvement of these cooperatives to secure a view to better return for the agricultural producers with higher value additions.

1.17.16 The recent changes introduced by the Government in several fields provide an opportunity for co- operatives to play a much larger role in several areas such as marketing of agricultural produce, creation of marketing infrastructure, establishment agro-processing, unjits etc. Many schemes taken up in the past will be continued with greater vigour. Targets envisaged for the Eighth Plan under some of the selected programmes involving the co-operative movement are indicated in Table 1.8.

1.17.17 The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD), which provides refinance support to base level financial institutions for lending to rural sector envisages acceleration of rural credit, specifically in the thrust areas. During the Seventh Five Year Plan, the extent of refinancing assistance -was of the order of Rs 6980.04 crores. The projected refinance support from NABARD is estimated to be about Rs 16,600 crores during the Eighth Five Year Plan.

        Table-1.8 Cooperative Sector Targets

Sl. No.

Programme

Base level 1991-92
anticipated Achievement

Eighth Plan
targets
1996-97

1. Short term loans (Rs. crores) 4350 7050
2. Medium term loans (Rs. crores) 360 615
3. Long term loans 965) 1625
4. Coop. marketing of agri. produce (Rs. crores) 7130 9500
5. Value of Fertilisers retailed by coops. (Rs. crores) 2475 4000
6. Value of consumer goods distributed in rural areas (Rs. crores) 2725 4500
7. Value of consumer goods distributed in urban areas (Rs. crores) 2700 5000
8. Coop. Sugar factories installed (No.)

220

269
9. Coop spinning milis installed (No.) 130 158
10. Capacity of coop. godowns constructed (lakh tonnes) 121 142
11. Cold storages (No.) 239 309

1.17.18 The Eighth Plan Central Sector Outlay for sub sector Crop Husbandry is Rs. 4681 crores, Soil and Water Conservation Rst 800 crores, Plantations Rs. 190 crores, Food, Storage and Warehousing Rs. 424 crores, Agricultural Financial Institutions Rs. 234 crores, Cooperation and Credit Rs. 1550 crores Food Processing Industries Rs 126 crores and other Agricultural Programmes Rs. 100 crores.

Animal Husbandary and Dairy Development

1.18.1 Considering the importance of the livestock development and Dairy Development sub-sector in improving the economic lot of especially the small and marginal farmers, the landless agricultural labour, rural women and its ability to create large employment opportunities, the programmes launched in the previous plans will be continued and systematically implemented. Attention will be focussed on the technologies being developed to make activities in this sub sector economically more remunerative. Research in the frontier areas, such as genetic engineering, provides for rapid upgra-dation of cattle through the use of Embryo Transfer Technology, development of more effective vaccines, in vitro reproduction etc. Increasing the livestock production and productivity is constrained by inadequate availability of feed and fodder. While the treatment of common property resources and their effective management under watershed development programmes will constitute,an important element, it is to enable the farmers to produce fodder and feed stock material. Extension of the programme is a must for systematic development of livestock sector. Production of quality seeds of fodder and forage especially of improved varieties has to be put on a sound basis for meeting the increasing demands of cultivated fodder and grasses. Efforts would also be made to utilise crop and cellulosic wastes through treatment and enrichment by uromol supplementation techniques.

1.18.2 High yield layers/broilers will be developed and private enterpreneureship encouraged. Incentives will be given to these organisations in terms of finances, appropriate training and guidance. The poultry rearing activities by private units or on cooperative basis will be promoted. An efficient structure will be established at the village, district, State and national levels which, apart from ensuring remunerative prices to the producers, will help in providing all the requisite inputs to the producers including credit, training, processing and marketing. Quail, duck and guinea fowl rearing farms will be established at State Poultry Centres. Additional cold storage facilities for storing eggs and broiler at selected districts will be created to overcome variation in production and demand. Proper prophylactic measures for better health care will be provided for increasing production.

1.18.3 The Livestock Importation Act is required to be amended as Animal Quarantine and Certification Act in order to make it broad-based and to provide for regulating export and import of livestock and livestock products. Diagnostic services and development of immunobi-ologicals using biotechnological tools will be increased for improvement of animal health. Strategies like "Operation Rinderpest Zero" and mass vaccination in endemic areas will be incorporated in the ongoing rinderpest eradication scheme.

1.18.4 Quality constraints, unhygienic slaughter houses, inadequate transportation system and prevalence of infectious animal diseases have impeded the realisation of the potential in the export of meat and meat products. The modernisation programme consists of diversification of bacon factories to process all types of meat, incentives to entrepreneurs to set up modem abattoirs for export and partial modernisation of slaughter houses in 50 district towns. Cross-breeding in indigenous pigs will be intensified to improve the socio- economic status of backward, rural and urban communities.

1.18.5 Sheep, goat and rabbit production will be encouraged and superior stock for breading purposes will be developed. Strengthening of marketing infrastructure and processing will be created through central coordinating Agency.

1.18.6 Encouragement will be given to develop pack animals for drought purposes during the period at various State farms by providing financial assistance through Centrally Sponsored Scheme

Dairy Development

1.18.7 During the Eighth Plan, the "Operation Flood" project will be continued for replicating Anand ' pattern of milk cooperatives and special emphasis will be laid on consolidating the earlier achievements through (a) enhanc-i ing productivity, (b) optimising efficiency of' milk cooperatives, (c) strengthening their institutional base/management, and (d) ensuring the long-term sustenance of the financially strong farmer-owned and farmer-managed organisations. Efforts also need to be focussed on areas which have had relatively tardier growth in dairy development through special programmes. The Central Sector outlays for the Eighth Plan, 1992-97, for Animal Husbandry and Dairy Development are Rs. 400 crores and Rs. 900 crores respectively.

The Table 1.9 indicates the targets of major livestock products for the Eighth Plan against achievements in 1989-90.

Fisheries

1.19.1 Against the estimated total potential of about 4.5 lakh tonnes of inland and brackish water fish, it is proposed to reach a production level of 2.7 lakh tonnes by the end of Eighth plan. The water area to be covered under fresh water aquaculture would reach more than 4 lakh ha. against the total area of 15 lakh ha. of ponds and tanks. In the case of brackish water aquaculture an estimated 65000 ha was brought under aquaculture till the end of Seventh Plan and another 20,000 ha. is expected to be brought under semi intensive culture during the Eighth Plan period. Steps would be taken for increasing the availability offish/ prawn seeds through construction of suitable hatcheries especially in the private sector, training of fish farmers, provision of adequate infrastructure such as feed mills, aquaculture implements etc.

1.19.2 A World Bank Project for development of prawn and fish production from inland and brackish water areas is to be taken up at an estimated cost of US$ 100 million. The programme would cover five States over a period of seven years. Brackish water culture would be taken up in 8 districts of Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Orissa, U.P. and West Bengal. It is expected that this project would provide employment to 14,000 shrimp and fish farmers.

1.19.3 In the marine sector the major thrust would be on motorisation of traditional craft and introduction of intermediate craft of 12-16 metre size for exploiting the off-shore resources. Suitable infrastructure for processing of this fish would also be developed. This would require new post-harvest techniques for product development and value addition in order to have better utilisation of these resources. In the deep sea sector, organised development of tuna fishery is to be given a thrust. Other important schemes include setting up of "Cold Chain" scheme and encouragement of diversified fishing activities. Joint venture programmes and leasing of fishing vessels will be streamlined, making them more acceptable to private entrepreneurs. Management and maintenance of fishing harbours would receive adequate support to utilise existing capacity of the landing and berthing facilities. Suitable harbour facility would also be developed for accommodation of deep sea tuna vessels. Export of marine products is expected to reach a level of about 2,69,800 tonnes valued at Rs.3,077 crores.

1.19.4 The welfare of fishermen would continue to receive priority attention. A new programme namely, savings- cum-relief would be introduced under which fishermen would make saving of a fixed amount everyday during good fishing season and this would be supplemented

   Table-1.9 Eighth Plan Target for Selected Livestock Products.

Sl. No. Item Unit
Achievements
EighthPlan Targets Annual Growth Rate (%)
1989-90 1990-91 1991-92   
1. Milk mill. tonnes 51.5 54.9 57.5 70.0 4.01
2. Eggs millions 20204 21342 22751 30,000 5.69
3. Wool milli. kgs 41.7 42.0 43.6 50 2.78

by additional contribution from State and Centre. These would be utilised to disburse a monthly amount to each fishermen family during the lean months.

1.19.5 The main thrust would be on increasing employment opportunities and sustained fish production by adopting an integrated approach. An additional employment potential of the order of 1.8 lakh persons per year during the Eighth Plan is expected. Fish production target for Eighth Plan is fixed at 5.5 million tonnes (28.5 lakh tonnes marine and 26.5 lakh tonnes inland). Promotion of aquaculture activities would help in achieving a higher fish production target from inland and brackish water sources. The growth rate from aquaculture is expected between five and six percent at a modest level although this may go up in certain states where conducive atmosphere prevails for taking up intensive fish farming. The fishery resources potential of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) has been re validated as 3.9 million tonnes aganist the earlier estimation of 4.5 million tonnes. The envisaged fish production target may help to increase the per capita availability of fish at least to 5 kg per annum aganist the present 3.5 kg per annum.

Agricultural Research and Education:

1.20.1 As recommended by the ICAR Review Committee, the Eighth Plan will seek to consolidate the research effort and facilities created to evolve location-specific and problem solving technologies to give a fillip to agricultural development programmes. Work in pure sciences and their integration with agricultural research will call far more attention. The thrust areas would include application of the research in frontier areas of sciences such as bio-tech-nology, space technology, plasticulture, etc. A computerised data base for agricultural research findings will be fully developed and operationalised. Space research and technologies, being generated for remote sensing applications in the management of natural resources as well as work done in agro- meterology will have to be integrated fully with the agricultural research programmes. The major sector-wise priorities will be as indicated briefly in the following paragraphs.

Crop Sciences:

1.20.2 The focus will be on collection of germ plasm of agriculturally important crops, their conservation, evaluation and utilisation with a view to developing promising varieties of a host of crops, particularly oilseeds, pulses, cereals, cotton with inbuilt resistance/tolerance to economically significant pests/diseases. Development of hybrid varieties in several of the crops mentioned will be intensified. Breeding crops tolerant to abiotic stresses, specially drought, salinity, pests and for location-specific problem areas such as deep water and rainfed conditions will be necessary to accelerate growth in areas which have in the past not benefitted as much and as well as the endowed irrigated areas. This is vital from the point of view of the need to reduce regional disparities in growth. Another area of concern is to develop Integrated Pest Management (IPM) techniques and to develop capabilities for forecasting and forewarning of the build-up of pests/disease incidence. Continuing emphasis will be placed on including tissue culture to evolve new and superior genotypes. In the field of horticultural crops, apart from development of suitable planting materials for different agro-climatic zones, the main task would be development of post-harvest technologies. The latter should encompass efforts to standardise harvesting practices, treatment of fruits and vegetables for marketing, processing, preservation and transportation to reduce losses at various stages. Specific areas of research would also have to be on packaging of cut flowers for exports.

1.20.3 Development of small tractors, tools, and appliances for use by small farmers will be a major task io agro-engineering design. Development of energy-efficient water-lifting devices from animal/mechanical farm power sources is another significant area. On the post-harvesting side, the development of equipment for cotton handling, processing and packaging is important with a view to upgrading the quality of cotton lint coming into market. These are but few illustrative examples.

Animal Sciences:

1.20.4 The focus will be on: (i) animal genetic resource conservation and evaluation through extensive field surveys and supported by studies on gene marker character - c.- situ andJn-situ^. conservation of threatened breeds.

(ii) genetic studies on drought species, viz., cattle, buffaloes, equine, camel and yak. (iii) survey of animal feeds and their utilisation and development of new non-conventional feed resources, determining incriminating agents, and their incorporation in livestock feeding system as well as mycotoxicosis and mineral imbalance in animal production and health, (iv) standardisation of new-reproduction technologies, viz. embryo-transfer technology and cryo-preservation for cattle, buffaloes, sheeps and goats; in-vitro reproduction, etc. (v) basic research in immunology to help in better understanding of immune responses, especially to parasitic diseases, (vi) development of new biotechnologies related to immuno diagnostica and prophylactics and animal disease surveillance and monitoring to allow forecasting and taking up strategic control and eradication measures.

Fisheries

1.20.5 The priority areas of research under Fisheries include research on brackish water fish farming and commercial exploitation of oceanic fish like 'Tuna' and exploitation of shell fish, sea-cucumber etc. The other areas which will need concentrated research efforts are post-harvest technology for fish, control offish diseases and development of high yielding cold water fisheries. Research in Post-harvest technology in cultured fish can prevent a lot of wastage of fish.. Reservoir ecology and management, particularly with respect to fish diseases and their control, can increase fish production to the desired level.

Agricultural Education

1.20.6 During the Eighth Plan, emphasis in the field of agricultural education will be on improving the quality of education without adding to the number of agricultural colleges. Institutional capacity already established is quite adequate to meet the scientific/technical manpower requirements in various areas of agriculture and allied activities. The newly established colleges for fisheries in Agricultural Universities need to be provided with necessary infrastructural facilities. The syllabus for various disciplines of agriculture and allied subjects need to be reviewed and updated.

1.20.7 Many of the ongoing externally assisted projects will spill-over to the Eighth Plan. They cover a large number of diverse areas of vital concerns to achieve rapid agricultural growth such as building facilities at ongoing research schemes on watershed management, fisheries, pulses and fodder development etc. Effective implementation will be instrumental in providing the necessary research back-up to the developmental efforts.

Krishi Vigyan Kendras (KVK)

1.20.8 Krishi Vigyan Kendra (farm science centre) was started by ICAR in 1974 and till Seventh Plan, 109 such Krishi Vigyan Kendras have been established in 107 Districts. At present, KVKs are funded on 100% basis from the ICAR budget. However, in the Eighth Plan, a new approach is being given for the implementation of the KVKs. Greater emphasis would be given on implementation of KVKs by NGOs for better peoples' participation.

1.20.9 The Central Sector outlay for the Eighth Plan (1992- 97) for Agricultural Research and Education is Rs. 1300 crores.

Small Farmers' Agri-Business Consortium

1.21.1 In order to generate employment, Planning Commission intends to give an employment and income generation orientation to the crop-husbandry, animal husbandry, agro-forestry, fisheries, agro-processing and agro-based industries/sectors during the Eighth Plan period. On the basis of recommendations of experts, ten areas have been identified where India has comparative advantages by global standards namely, Food-crops, Oilseeds, Cotton, Sugarcane, Horticulture, Sericulture, Dairy Development, Poultry, Aqua-culture and Agro-Forestry.

1.21.2 If we improve the efficiency of production and post- harvest technologies and develop suitable marketing network then our products can become highly cost-competitive in the international market. This can be achieved through decetralised production supported by few key centralised services, preferably operated by educated youth belonging to landless rural families. Not only will it generate employment for persons who will otherwise migrate to towns and cities but will also lead to nationwide spread 6f improved and scientific methods of land and, water use.

1.21.3 With this end in view, Government has decided to set up a Small Farmers'Agri-Business Consortium, as an autonomous corporate body. In addition to Government-sponsored organisations like the National Dairy Development Board, National Horticulture Development Board, National Wasteland Development Board, National Seeds Corporation and State Farms Corporation etc., the Consortium will have the participation of interested private sector companies, banks like NABARD, IDBI, RBI, insurance companies, farmers' organisations and scientific organisations like ICAR, CSIR, CA-PART, Department of Bio-Technology and the Indian Council of Forestry Research and Education. The Consortium will be headed by a whole-time Managing Director. There will be high-level policy and planning body at the central level to provide direction and Government Support.

1.21.4 The Small Farmers' Agri-Business Consortium will function on the principles of economic efficiency and viability, environmental soundness and social equity. The members of the Consortium will contribute financial and technical resources necessary to make the programme a success.

1.21.5 The Consortium will identify, to begin with, about 45 Small Farmers' Agri-Business Programme areas, each based on a contiguous agro-ecological area surrounding a designated district. Each programme area will have an appropriate mix of enterprises. For example, the coastal area programme may place considerable emphasis on capture arid culture fisheries, coastal forestry and agro-forestry and export oriented enterprises. The enterprise-mix will have to be determined for each programme area in consultation with farm workers, since in the ultimate analysis it is only farmers and fishermen who toil to produce food and other commodities. Training, re-training, the supply of new material, introduction ofecologically sound management procedures to receive careful and detained attention. Discussions have already taken place with representatives from Banks, Government Corporations, scientific community and farmers/users associations.

Allocations

1.22.1 In line with the priority attached to the igricultural sector the total outlay proposed for Agriculture and Allied Programmes for the Eighth Plan is Rs. 11105 crores. The allocations for Crop Husbandry include cropwise programmes under Ministry of Agriculture and development of tobacco under the Ministry of Commerce. The Ministry of Food is having the schemes for food storage and warehousing which includes construction of storage/warehousing facilities through FCI and Central Warehousing Corporation, post-harvest operations and allocation for National Sugar Institute, Kanpur. The Ministry of Rural Development is involved in the construction of agricultural marketing yards, operations relating to quality control, Agmark grading, etc. Programmes for plantations are implemented by the Ministry of Commerce. Credit for the agriculture and allied activities, both farm and non-farm related, are being routed through NABARD, RRBs and NCDC.

Table 1.10 Central Sector Outlays for the Eighth Plan (1992-97) Agriculture and Allied Activities*
(in Rs Crores)

Sl.No. Sub-Head of Development Total Outlay
l.Crop Husbandry 4681
2. Soil and Water Conservation 800
3. Animal Husbandry 400
4. Dairy Development 900
5.Fisheries 400
6. Plantations 190
7. Food Storage and Warehousing 424
S.Agricultural Research and Education 1300
9-AgriculturaI Financial Institutions 234
10. Cooperation and Credit 1550
11. Food Processing Industries 126
12-Other Agricultural Programmes 100
TOTAL 1105

* Excludes forestry and wildlife.

Annexure-1

Target of Key inputs-Eighth Plan

SI 
NO
ITEM     UNIT 7th Plan (1985-90) 1990-91 Assumed Plan Target
Target Achievement Achievement base level (1991-92) 1996-97  (8th Plan) 1992-93
Annual Plan
I. Certified Seeds Distribution Lakh Quintals 70.00 *57.04 57.10 49.00 70.00 53.00
II. Fertiliser Consumption      
i) Nitrogenous Million tonnes 9.1-9.3 7.39 7.87 8.33 11.50 8.95
ii) Phosphatic " 3.00-3.20 3.01 3.20    5.00 3.97
iii) Potassic " 1.40-1.50 1.17 1.22    1.80 1.55
Total N+P+K " 13.50-
14.00
11.5 12.29 13.5 18.30 14.47
III Pesticides (Technical grade material) 000 tonnes 75.00 72.47 79.40 80.05 97.80 84.00
IV. HYV Programme  
i) l Paddy millon ha 32.00 27.7 27.50 27.0 33.9 30.40
ii) l Wheat n 22.00 20.7 21.0 21.4 23.8 23.00
iii) Jowar " 6.50 6.8 7.0 5.70 8.60 7.90
iv) l Bajra " 6.50 5.2 5.6 4.70 6.60 5.90
V) I Maize " 3.00 2.8 2.5 2.60 3.80 2.80
vi) l Other (Ragi) "       1.2 1.2 1.30 1.20
Total HYV " 70.00 63.1 64.8 62.6 78.00 **71.20

* Includes 41.00 lakh quintals of certified seeds
** Target for area under HYV for 1992-93 including pulses is fixed at 75.00 million ha.

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