8th Five Year Plan (Vol-2)
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Agricultural and Allied Activities || Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation || Irrigation, Command Area Development and Flood Control || Environment and Forests || Industry and Minerals || Village and Small Industries and Food Processing Industries || Labour and Labour Welfare || Energy || Transport || Communication, Information and Broadcasting || Education, Culture and Sports || Health and Family Welfare || Urban Development || Housing, Water Supply and Sanitation || Social Welfare || Welfare and Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes || Special Area Development Programmes || Science and Technology || Plan Implementation and Evaluation




11.9.1 Technical education including Management education is one of the most potent means for creating skilled manpower required for developmental tasks of various sectors of the economy. Technical education incorporates the technological dimension which is a vehicle for development. While this implies high costs of construction, laboratory equipment, library books and journals and high rate of obsoles-cence, such high cost, being directly related to development, should be viewed as an essential productive investment, yielding valuable returns to the society and contributing to socio-economic development.

Plan Performance Review (1985-92)

11.9.2 The Seventh Plan emphasised consolidation and optimum utilisation of existing infra-structural facilities, their upgradation and modernisation, identification of critical areas and creation of infrastructure in new areas of emerging technology, effective management of the overall system and institutional linkages between technical education and other development sectors.

11.9.3 Under the thrust areas programme of technical education 510 projects with a grant ofRs. 53.43 crore were supported for strengthening of facilities in the crucial areas of technology where weaknesses exist, 685 projects involving a grant of Rs. 76.84 crore were supported for creation of infrastructure in areas of emerging technologies and 202 projects involving ofRs. 27.1 crores were supported for programame of new technologies. A comprehensive report of requirement of instrumentation engineers at national level for the period 1990-2000 has been prepared by the National Technical Manpower Information System (NTMIS). The number of Community Polytechnics (CPs) increased to 159 with an annual training coverage of 20,000 rural youth and women.

11.9.4 The following new schemes were started as part of the implementation of NPE:

  1. Continuing Education: The scheme envisaged preparation and disseminatioin of course material packages suited to the needs of industry. Under the scheme implemented by 5 Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) 4 Technical Training Teachers' Institutes (TTTIs), 1 Indian Society of Technical Education (ISTE), 4 engineering colleges/university departments and 4 polytechnics, more than 30,000 working professionals have undergone training.
  2. Institution-Industry Interaction: Under the scheme, Proposals of 21 engineering colleges and 11 polytechnics have been approved for interaction with the industry.
  3. Research and Development in Technical Education: 126 R and D Projects were supported.

Eighth Plan Perspective

11.10.1 The perspective of development of technical education for the Eighth Plan would have to take into account the following
imbalances and distortions:

(i) During the past four decades, there has been a phenomenal expansion of technical education in the country. Today, we have over 200 recognised technical education institutions (TEls) at the first degree level and more than 560 polytechnics at the diploma level with annual admission capacities of 40,000 and 80000 students, respectively. About 140 institutions offer facilities for postgraduate studies and research in several specialised areas with an annual capacity of 9,400 students, (ii) The quantitative expansion has resulted in the lowering of the standards and there exists a structural imbalanace of skill requirement of the business sector and the traditional curriculum followed by the educational institutes. These factors give rise to problems of unemployment and under-employment. The wastage in the system is enormous, being 30 per cent at degree level, 35 per cent at diploma level and 45 per cent at post-graduate level. The situation in unrecognised institutions is still worse. A related phenomenon is that of brain-drain involving migration abroad of those trained in emerging areas in excellent institutes. (iii) The infrastructural facilities available in the vast majority of TEls are extremely inadequate. There is an acute shortage of faculty with about 25 to 40 per cent of faculty positions remaining unfilled. In most of the institutions, there is hardly any R and D activity, (iv) The TEls are functioning in isolation. Linkage and interaction between TEls and user-agencies, such as industries, R and D and design organisations and development sectors are not sufficiently strong. Neither is there a strong interaction among institutions by way of sharing of facilities like equipments, libraries, teaching faculty and other resources. (v) There has been an enormous increase in public expenditure on education but little attention has been paid to the strategies for raising non-budgetary resources and maximising people's participation.

Eighth Plan Strategy and Thrust

11.10.2 The thrust areas for the Eighth Plan have, therefore, been identified as follows:

(1) Modernisation and upgradation ofinfrastruc-tural facilities. (2) Quality improvement in technical and management education. (3) Responding to new industrial policy and industry-institution R and D labs interaction. (4) Resource mobilisation. (5) Institutional thrusts.

11.10.3 The strategy to be adopted to achieve these objectives would be on the following lines:

Modernisation and Upgradaiion of Infra-structural Facilities

11.10.4 Modernisation relates both to technical equipments and teaching methods. Technology development is a capital-intensive process. The country cannot afford to go on changing the technology every year. It is, therefore, imperative to adopt futuristic approaches for achieving modernisation and self-reliance in a sustained manner. Coordinated and concerted efforts would have to be made to upgrade and consolidate the infrastructural facilities in the existing institutions. The process of removal of obso-lescence would include enhancement of computer facilities and establishment and interlinking of large computer systems with educational and research institutions through appropriate telecommunication facilities. Steps would be taken to strengthen and create the facilities in crucial areas of technology where weaknesses exist, in areas of emerging technologies and in new specialised fields. Up-gradation of infrastructure would also include a crash programme for recruitment of about 10,000 teachers in polytechnics and colleges and strengthening of arrangements for teacher training.

Upgradation of Polytechnics

11.10.5 Central Government has launched a massive project with the assistance of the World Bank to enable the State Governments upgrade their polytechnics in capacity, quality and efficiency for the period 1990 to 1999. The project is being taken up in two phases with a total outlay of Rs. 1,892 crores. The first phase would cover 296 polytechnics recognised by the AICTE in eight States - Bihar, Gujarat, Kar-nataka, Keraia, M.P., Orissa, Rajasthan and L'ttar Pradesh. The second phase would cover 262 polytechnics in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal and Delhi. The project has also a Centra! Sector component for establishment of a national project implementation unit. Coresponding outlay is being provided vide Annexure 11.8.

Quality Improvement in Technical and Management Education

11.10.6 A holistic and need-based approach would be adopted to reorieni the technical and management education (TME). A more broad-based flexible system with provision for multi-point entry is required 10 enable a better response to the unspecified demands of the future. At the micro-level, the curriculum would be developed to encourage creativity and innovation in experimental work by introducing probiem/process-oriented laboratory exercises. New technology-oriented entrepreneurship and management courses would he introduced in selected institutions having adequate infrastructural facilities. There would be greater emphasis on production engineering towards design and product development.

Technology Watch

11.10.7 The Government has recently established a Technology Information Forecasting and Assessment Council (T1FAC). Its objectives include: evaluation of existing technologies, preparation of technology forecast reports and estimation of the nature and quantum of likely demands for goods and services in future. It would be desirable to couple the technology forecasting system with the system of manpower forecasting and planning. Universities and HTs are familiar with the frontiers of knowledge and hence should play an important role in technical forecast and technological assessment with the fruitful involvement ot'TlFAC, Institute of Applied Manpower Research (1AMR) and the Indian trade and industries associations. It should be possible to develop the right type of indigenous technologies to assess the related manpower requirements and to produce such trained manpower.

11.10.8 The existing facilities for continuing education and retraining are inadequate. There is a need to formalise the retraining programme for engineering and technology personnel engaged in all sectors and to make them mandatory. Increasing use of modern communication devices should be made. Programme-learning packages need to be created and distance learning methodologies employed to enable self-development and training of all scientific and technical personnel.

Responding to New Industrial Policy

11.10.9 There is a need to establish linkage between industry, national laboratories, developmental sectors, professional bodies, technical education, vocational education and craftsmen training and to bring about networking among institutions. In the context of the new industrial policy, the priority may be assigned to interaction with industry as it holds the key 10 industrial competitiveness in a global market. A shategy may be evolved for effective interaction heiween industry and institutions and for promotion of interaction through apprenticeship opportunities, consultancy and sponsored research, continuing education programmes for industry personnel, adjunct professorships in institutions for willing and capable personnel from industry, seconding of institutional faculty to industry, involvement of industry in the development of curricula and courses etc. For this purpose, organisational mechanisms such as Industrial Liasion Board, Industry-Institution Cells, Industrial Foundation etc., will have to be set up. The R and D activities may be taken up through the support of industry.

11.10.10 In this context, a reference may be made to a model for university-industry symbiosis conceived and implemented at Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad for bringing about a greater and more effective interaction between technological university and industry. The model envisaged the setting up of a Bureau for Industrial Consultancy and Research and Development (BICARD) in universities/technological institutes of higher education, preparation of a comprehensive directory of technology experts to operationalise various aspects of interaction like orientation of university curriculum, exchange of experts between teaching institutions and industries, involvement of teaching staff in industry, technological database and self-reliance of institutions etc. This model was recently revised by its author to include the loop of R and D organisations. A national cell to promote and coordinate the linkages between the promotional agencies, university, industry and R and D organisations has also been suggested. The revised model could be adopted/adapted with benefit by other TEls.

Resource Mobilisation

11.10.11 Since technical education is inherently expensive, concrete steps to ensure cost-effectiveness as an aspect of resource mobilisation are of vital importance. These include:

  1. Avoidance of duplication of investment in TEls located close to each other and proper maintenance of available facilities and instruments;
  2. Developing institution-wise specialisation in respect of courses and technical manpower so that the institutions can have the most sophisticated and modern library and laboratory facilities in their chosen fields;
  3. Weeding out of outdated and stereotyped courses and introduction of relevant courses in emerging areas;
  4. Multiple use of infrastructural facilities through part-time courses, continuing education programmes and consultancy and testing services; '
  5. Marginal increase in intake capacities in areas of scarce manpower and decrease in intake of low demand areas. In this connection, an increase in the intake in better institutions by 10 per cent should receive urgent attention;
  6. Introduction of multiple or at least double shifts in TEls;
  7. Maximum use of non-monetary inputs, like better planning, advanced technologies and practices, better system of supervision and administration, minitoring and review etc; and
  8. Commercialisation of research work of the institutions.

11.10.12 The Task Force appointed by AICTE to go into the question of laying down tuition and other fees and to suggest other sources of mobilisation of resources for technical education has suggested raising of fees in relation to Government, Government-aided and unaided institutions on a graduated scale. A beginning has been made by raising fees in the IIMs. The IITs and other TEls are also required to raise the fees. The measure of raising fees, however, should be coupled with scholarships for SCs/STs and for students below poverty line and a loan scheme for other students.

11.10.13 Creation of a corpus fund can be another way of mobilising resources for an institution, especially in the case of IITs. Contributions to the corpus fund will have to come from various sources viz. industry, alumni, charitable trusts etc. as well as Government.

11.10.14 Another way of enhancing investment is to implement NPE/POA idea of requiring development departments to allocate a fixed per cent of their annual budgets for development of TEls. The question of collection of education cess' from industry, which can thus share the cost of educating technical manpower and of giving tax exemption to industry for contributions made by it to development of technical eduction should also receive serious consideration.

Institutional Thrusts

All-India Council of Technical Education (AICTE)

11.10.15 The AICTE was given statutory status in 1988 in view of the need for maintaining and developing standards. It would be further strengthened to ensure coordinated development with its four regional committees located at Kanpur, Madras, Bombay and Calcutta. A Board of Accreditation is expected to be set up shortly and most of the schemes implemented by the Technical Education Bureau of the Department of Education are expected to be taken over by AICTE.

Technical Institutions in the University Sector

11.10.16 The UGC provides financial assistance to 32 institutions in engineering and technology for their overall development. Although some of the institutions in this sector like Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore, are centres of excellence and this sector as a whole accounts for 1,600 M.E/M.Tech students, the financial allocations tend to be limited, as they are part of the overall UGC allocations. A separate mechanism may he set up which would advise UGC regarding the financial needs and priorities of these institutions and the Planning Commission should allocat appropriate earmarked outlays for this sector covering not only post-graduate education as in the past but also under-graduate education on a selective basis.

Other Post-graduate Institutes

11.10.17 Sixteen State Governments and 24 non-Government post-graduate institutions are being assisted by the Central Government with a view to developing specialised fields of engineering/ technology having national relevance. The intake for post-graduate courses per year in engineering and technology is proposed to be increased from 10,000 to^l 1,000 by the end of Eighth Plan.

Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs)

11.10.18 The new Industrial Policy has created an environment which requires IITs to adopt a new role as leaders in current and futuristic technology development. The following four areas for further action have been identified in the light of consultations held by Planning Commission:

(1) Thrust areas of technology development, (2) International consultancy, (3) Resource mobilisation and setting up of Corpus Fund and (4) Industrial Foundation.

Technology Development

11.10.19 The technology development through innovation and its subsequent transfer to industry by five IITs would be the first step towards the identification of project mission and creation of appropriate environment. These project missions are conceived in three groups:

(1) Areas where gains are likely to be visible in the long-term such as biotechnology, fuel-efficient engines, microelectronics, pho-tonics.

(2) Areas where short-term gains can be planned, such as communication and software technology, food processing, instrumentation and central integrated production engineering and design, non-conventional energy, remote sensing and transportation.

(3) Areas where results in the intermediate term are possible like coal, computer, integrated manufacturing, natural hazard mitigation and new materials technology. It is expected that each of he IITs would select a few areas from among those to work on during the Eighth Plan.

International Consultancy

11.10.20 The IITs have a potential to offer educational and industrial consultancy services at international level. The consultancy would cover: institution building, establishment of specialised laboratory facilities, development of curricula, organising continuing education/joint research projects and faculty development etc. There is good scope for international consultancy assignemnts for IITs in South-East Asian and other countries. This can be a source of additional resource mobilisation.

Resource Mobilisation and Corpus Fund

11.10.21 Resource mobilisation measures would be taken up on the lines mentioned earlier, including corpus fund to which Government could contribute a block grant annually over a period of years subject to contributions from other sources. Two ideas specific to IITs are:

permitting them to charge from foreign students a full cost tuition fee in foreign exchange and obtaining an endowment grant from countries with an explicit commitment to training specified manpower for that country.

Industrial Foundation

11.10.22 In order to facilitate interaction and collaboration with industry and other user-organisations in programmes of mutual interest, an industrial foundation needs to be set up in each IIT. The foundation would function as a registered society/corporate body linked to the par-ent-IIT, with financial and administrative autonomy and adopt industrial culture and methods. Resource generation of these foundations would he through Government grants/corporate membership fees/overheads on projects and services/donation and gifts etc. These foundations would render technical support to small-scale industry and engineering entrepreneurs and develop products and processes at the request of industry. There would also be manpower exchange between IITs and industry.

Regional Engineering Colleges (RECs)

11.10.23 There are 17 Regional Engineering Colleges in the country which are joint ventures between Government of India and State Governments. They are expected to be pace-setting institutions in their regions. They need academic autonomy and their funding should be from one source, preferably Central Government. The ultimate aim should be to make them deemed universities. A proposal involving assistance of 6 million pound sterling to develop collaboration between RECs and some British Universities in the emerging areas such as design, materials, energy, informatics etc. is being worked out.

Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs)

11.10.24 The four Indian Institutes of Management set up as pace-setting and premier centres of excellence in management education and research have been instrumental in producing highly qualified managerial manpower. Their activities need to be revamped, particulaly keeping in view the changing scenario both at the national and international level. A consultation held by Planning Commission led to the suggestion that there should be links between management institutes and training institutes in specific sectors like health, rural development, agricultural extension etc. It was also suggested that there should be an integrated view of management education and there should be resource mobilisation, corpus fund, mutual sharing of facilities and division of labour in the matter of thrust areas etc. A plan of action is being prepared in this regard.

Community Polytechnics (CPs)

11.10.25 It is proposed to cover all the remaining polytechnics under the scheme of CPs by suitably reorganising and strengthening them in the light of the recommendations of the National Expert Committee set up to appraise them. The Community Polytechnics are expected to play a major role in rural manpower development and their outreach should be expanded by resorting to distance education methods.

Financial Allocations

11.10.26 The actual expenditure on technical education in the Seventh Plan was Rs. 1083.34 crores of which Rs.610.96 crores was in the Central Sector and Rs. 472.38 crores in the State Sector. The outlays and expendiure for the Seventh Plan and approved outlays for the Eighth Plan are shown in Annexures 11.3 and 1L7. The Eighth Plan outlays in the State Sector are required to be higher to reflect the implementation of the World Bank-assisted Technician Education Project.


Review of the Seventh Plan and Annual Plans 1985-92


11.11.1 Preservation and promotion of culture is a common objective of the Central and State Departments of Culture. At the Central level, sizeable institutional infrastructure has been built up. During the Seventh Plan, the School of Archaeology, under the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was raised to the status of an Institute of Archaeology with a two-year course. Major conservation works were taken up in 303 monuments. Seven Indian monuments were included in the World Heritage List making a total of 14 such monuments in India. Conserevation work of Ankorvat Temple (Kampuchea) was taken up on behalf of UNESCO on a major scale. Important discoveries were made through excavation of 19 new places like Banawali (Harappa), Sanghol (Punjab) and Udaygiri (Orissa). The National Archives of India (NAI) brought out the first volume of Guide to Sources of Asian History and provided financial assistance to 209 voluntary organisations in 22 States for preservation of manuscripts and to 13 State Archives for their development. The archives building project was completed. The National Museum set up the National Institute of History of Art, Conservation and Muscology (NI-HACM) as a deemed university. The main thrust of the Anthropological Survey of India (An.SI) centred around the project 'People of India' initiataed in 1985 under which 5,000 communities were studied and reports thereon prepared. The building of the Central Research and Training Laboratory of National Council of Science Museums (NCSM) Calcutta has been completed. The Hall of Science, Technology and Energy in Delhi, Raman Science Centre in Nagpur and Regional Science Centre in Guwahati were set up. The National research laboratory for conservation of cultural property extended assistance to Maldivean Government for cnservation of Hukru Mosque. The collections of National Library Calcutta were enhanced bringing them to 23 lakh hooks. The Central Secretariat library initiated work on creating a data base on Mahabharata. The Raja Ram Mohan Roy Library Foundation which gives matching assistance to State/District Libraries, set up an Integrated Research Cell-cum-Computer Unit for promoting research in librarianship and data base of public libraries in the country. Seven Zonal Cultural Centres (ZCC's) at Patiala, Nagpur, Allahabad, Udaipur, Shanti Niketan, Dimapur and Thanja-vur organised over 300 major events including workshops, fairs, exhibitions of folk, tribal arts and crafts, classical dance performances, music concerts, theatre fairs etc. The Sahitya Academi (SA), Sangeet Natak Akademi (SNA) and Lalit Kala Akademi (LKA) continued their schemes relating to awards and fellowships to distinguished literary scholars and artists; held workshops, exhibitions, kala melas and brought out useful publications like fourth volume of Encyclopaedia of Indian literature and literary works on 22 Indian languages. The SNA also provided financial assistance to cultural institutions for training, production and research besides holding zonal theatre festivals. The LKA held the 7th Triennale India, 'Colours of the Earth', an exhibition of ceramics from Britain and provided assistance to studios/regional centres at Madras, Calcutta, Lucknow and Bhubaneswar. The National School of Drama (NSD) inter alia, introduced a repertory company of adults performing for children besides holding theatre workshops and staging shows.

11.11.2 A number of schemes, like building grants, financial assistance to dance, drama, theatre ensembles, promotion and dissemina-tion of tribal/folk art and culture, preservation of cultural heritage of Himalayas and development of Buddhists/Tibetan orgnisations, have been implemented by the Department to encourage voluntary efforts. The Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Varanasi became a deemed university in 1988.


11.11.3 The Indira Gandhi National Centre for the Arts (IGNCA) was registered as an autonomous trust in March, 1987 with four academic divisions of Kala Nidhi, Kala Kosha, Janapada Sampada, Kala Darshan and Sutradhara. The IGNCA has been designated as a nodal agency to prescribe technical standards for all agencies under the Central and State Governments for storage, retrieval and dissemination of data on arts, humanities and cultural heritage. It has launched a massive programme of collecting multi-media primary and secondary source materials by identifying 3,000 repositories of unpublished manuscripts in various institutions and libraries and micro-filming of unpublished manuscripts. Under Janapada Sampada, IGNCA undertook lifestyle studies of tribal communities and their art forms particu-larlyin North-Eastern region of Nagaland, Mi-zoram and Arunachal Pradesh. Field studies have been undertaken and archaeological sites located for setting up a permanent multi-media presentation of pre-historic and aboriginal art (Adi Drsya and Adi Sravya). It also held multi-disciplinary programmes on unified themes of KHAM (Space), AKARA (Calligraphy) and KALA (Time) and an exhibition on Buddhist cave paintings from China.

11.11.4 Regarding the buildings of IGNCA, 23 acres of land in the Central Vista area has been allotted. A design has been approved after holding an International Design Competition. The Building Project Committee has finalised the Architectural Services Agreement and sought approval from Delhi Urban Arts Commission and Central Vista Committee. Detailed site survey soil-testing and scrutiny of concept stage plans have been completed.

Cultural Policy

11.11.5 In the field of cultural policy, the three notable developments have been the NPE '86, departmental efforts for formulation of a National Policy on Culture and the Report of the High-level Committee on Academies and NSD (Haksar Committee). The NPE 1986 emphasised the need to bridge the schism between the formal system of education and the country's rich and varied cultural traditions, it suggested enrichment of curricula by cultural content and establishment of linkages between the university systems and institutions of higher learning in art. The Central Department of Culture circulated a discussion draft on the basic issues relating to National Cultural Policy and initiated a series of regional seminars. The Haksar Committee gave a detailed exposition of its views on approach to culture, arts and values. In a number of Expert Group meetings initiated in Planning Commission in the last two to three years, the need for reexamination of some of the basic issues on culture in the national context was highlighted by various eminent participants. It was suggested that the policy should be evolved democratically, associating State Governments, voluntary cultural organisations and people who generated culture in different areas instead of confining it to bureaucrats, educationists and specialists. A large number of inputs are available for formulation of a cultural policy. The strategies and thrust areas now projected should he seen in this background.

Strategy and Thrust Areas

11.12.1 (a) There is a growing recognition that Culture is at the core of all developmental activities, giving a sense of direction and guidance to human life for pursuing goals,cultivation of good values and attainment of excellence in every walk of life. The country has a very ancient civilisation comprising numerous styles, namely classical, folk and tribal which need to be preserved, documented, expressed and disseminated not only by strengthening State and Central departments and upgrading the existing facilities, but also by encouraging voluntary effort, community effort and organised private and corporate effort.

(b) Community can he involved in a big way for preservation and protection of cultural monuments. India has nearly 8,000 monuments, of which 5,000 are under the States and 3,000 under the Centre. Many more in the interior areas need to be identified and protected. Local initiatives, particularly from rural areas, can be encouraged by appealing to local pride of possession by preservation of our ancient heritage;

(c) Many museums at State and national level having immensely valuable artistic objects have been unable to display them due to lack of space and buildings and apart from expediting sanc-tiond construction, there is need to evolve suitable policies. Although the ASI has 31 site museums located all over the country, there is need for many more such museums for housing objects scattered in the country.

(d) Under State Tribal Departments, the Anthropological Survey of India and Rashtriya Manav Sangrahalaya (RMS), Tribal Museums are maintained but there is no living movement to identify, collect, preserve and support existing talents among the tribal, rural and folk artists and craftsmen for sustaining their artistic and cultural pursuits. These tribal arts and crafts were integral part of the way of life of people having an economic dimension. With the spread of industrialisation and commercialisation, the tribal artists have taken to modern occupations and their arts are now languishing e.g. the paintings of Warlis in Maharashtra, Kantha work of Bengal, Kalamkari of Andhra etc. Documentation of the dying and languishing arts, identification of arts and crafts having a viability to stand on their own under modern circumstances, providing them economic assistance, marketing and other support services is necessary. There could be a network of cooperatives of tribal artists and craftsmen linked to State-level organisations as every State has varied arts and crafts traditions which are quite attractive and fascinating. Drawing inspiration from this. States should start inter-district programmes inviting local grassroot level artists of dying art forms; (e) Resources, other than monetary, need to be catalysed,involving universities and voluntary organisations. The present method of the Zonal Cultural Councils inviting troupes to perform in an ad hoc manner is demeaning to folk artistes. The ZCCs need to make a deeper impact, and their activities should have an echo in every State. Taking threads from ZCC, the States should take up innovative schemes.

(f) While various programmes of central organisations would be supported, the tendency for central organisations to set up their regional branches would be discouraged. Central agencies would be expected to work along side State, district and local level cultural organisations and avoid bureaucratisation.

(g) The role of the State Departments of Culture in stimulating and promoting cultural development in the following fields needs emphasis: (i) development of regional language and literature and the translation of significant literary works in the regional language into other regional languages; (ii) preservation and protection of cultural property including monuments, and (iii) inculcation of cultural topics and values in the textbooks for primary and secondary schools in the regional language. States should intervene in the cultural field and ensure that a high priority is given to cultural development in their overall programme of development.

(h) A policy-related aspect of cultural conservation is the need to evolve tools for assessment of cultural impact of development projects and to make this assessment an integral part <--'' appraisal of new development projects. Sue tools and such assessment have become well ";c-cepted and standard in the field ofenvironmeii Similar exercises in relation to culture shoul take place for every project, taking care to see that they are not perceived, and do not actually operate, as a hindrance to development process.

Eighth Plan Programmes


11.13.1 The Archological Survey of India (ASI) would take up 125 monuments for comprehensive special repairs. The major thrusts are: establishment of an effective linkage between Central and State institutions; strengthening of the role of voluntary organisations in preservation of cultural property, including antiquities; improving effectiveness of legislation; documentation of both movable and immovable cultural property; revival of popular interest and awareness among the masses in our archaeological heritage through media; expansion and augmentation of the Institute of Archaeology. The new schemes proposed are: establishment of document centres; the setting up of site museums in rural areas; grants to State Departments for conservation of unprotected historical structures at district and Panchayat level, grants to universities and research bodies for archaeological investigation and studies and setting up of World Heritage Wing. A new building for ASI headquarters and buildings for its circle and field offices are also contemplated. The Institute of Archaeology would be involved in studies relating to cultural impact assessment of development projects. The Anthropology Survey of India apart from its building programme, would take up new schemes on urban anthropology and health and healthcare issues and strengthen its palaeo-anthropological research, study of Indian settlers in Africa and neighbouring countries. It would also complete the line of work, by survey and documentation, started by Verrier Elwin to salvage and document those specimens of the tribal and folk art which face the threat of extinction. It proposes to study inherent socio-religious disabilities of the tribals, nature of transformation and mobilisation of their special skills in arts, dance and music and mastery over musical instruments. The RMS in Bhopal, apart from developing its "permanent exhibitions" and "Relevant collections" under various themes, would set up the four regional collection centres and strengthen its museum education outreach programmes and operation salvage. The NAI would bring out the remaining four volumes of the Guide to the Sources of Asian History. The School of Archives would be modernised. Acquisition of micro-film copies of records of Indian interest from abroad would continue. A records centre to serve as intermediate repository for semi-noncurrent records of Central Government offices located in Eastern Zone is proposed to be set up. The Khuda Baksh Public Library proposes to establish an Institute of Oriental Studies and open regional units to carry out research on Indo-Islamic and comparative religion. The Rampur Raza Library would acquire sophisticated equipment for preservation of its collections. Asiatic society, Calcutta proposes to set up an Art Gallery, introduce desktop publishing system and construct a new building. The National Museum proposes to set up new galleries in second phase building, set up museum shops, expand photographic department and modernise it, provide museum consultancy service and software aid projects, computerised library, open museum corners in schools, instal modern security equipment and to introduce digital image and retrieval system. The Indian Museum, Calcutta proposes to set up new galleries on textiles, folk people, gems and jewelleries, take up research project on South and East Asian Art, organise display of artefacts from tribal belts, adopt tribal museums and promote their crafts and performing arts through mass communication programmes. A new multistory building in the adjoining site is envisaged. The Salarjung Museum, proposes to initiate computerised documentation of art objects in addition to its programmes of acquisition, reorganisation of galleries and post-graduate centre in muscology and security. It has a substantial programme of construction of new buildings for housing its Western and far Eastern collections. The Victoria Memorial Hall, Calcutta proposes to remodel and renovate its galleries and initiate Son-et-Lumiere on the history of Calcutta. The National Gallery of Modern Art proposes to promote art in rural areas, tribal art forms, develop sculpture garden, produce documentary films, acquire works of art and arrange display at Archaeological site museums. Construction of a new building at Delhi and structural repairs of its Bombay branch will be taken up. The Nehru Memorial Museum and Library, apart from construction of its new library building, proposes to take up new schemes for reorganisation of reprography services, strengthening of Oral History Division and acquisition of a computer. The Allahabad Museum proposes to set up photo and chemical laboratory, construct a building and reorganise galleries. The NCSM with a very intensive outreach programme intends to create 1,000 science centres to reach the doorstep of the common man. Five new regional centres, 20 District Science Centres and 203 school science centres in the under-privileged rural schools, 20 new mobile science exhibition buses attached to regional centres, a "Science Train" and "Travelling" science exhibitions are also envisaged. The NRL proposes to set up a National -Information Centre for Conservation to cope with world-wide developments and latest technology and thus facilitate retrieval and exchange of information on conservation, ft also proposes to set up a Regional Laboratory at Ahmedabad, open a Technical Information cell and conduct further studies and surveys. The six months training course of curator.s and conservators is propo.sed to be raised to 9 months. It is proposed to set up a Centre for Social and Cultural Studies in Calcutta to commemorate the memory of Maulana Ahul Kalam Azad. It would specialise in area studies of Central Asia and South-East Asia. It is also proposed to promote and strengthen regional and local museums. The new schemes of National Library include: modernisation scheme, library of microfilms, national union catalogue and National Book Production Statistics (a monitoring cell). There is a substantial construction programme including annexe building known as Bhasha Bha-van for keeping three million documents. It is proposed to reorganise the Centrel Reference Library into a National Bibliographical and Documentation Centre which would also have a Computer Centre, The Delhi Public Library proposes to set up two new libraries in its service area. The new scheme of RRL Foundation include assistance to State Central Libraries for reprographic equipment, to reputed libraries for processing of rare books and assistance to a network of public libraries which have completed 100 years. The question of assisting a network of rural libraries would also be explored.

11.13.2 The Sangeetha Natak Akademy (SNA) proposes to publish a three-volume encyclopaedia of music, dance and theatre, have a new campus for Kathak Kendra, open two peripheral centres in Delhi and hold naional workshops on music, dance and theatre. The LKA would commission sculptures and murals of monumental nature and acquire gallery space for Triennale India. The SA would undertake publication of best of children's literature and their translation into 21 Indian languages. All the three Academies, housed in Rabindra Bhavan, propose to share cost of construction of the second phase. The NSD, in addition to establishment of an independent campus, proposes to set up a Theatre Archives Museum, collect period costumes, model costumes and theatre traditions, extend its repertory company and organise an Annual Theatre Festival. The ShU-pagram at Western ZCC, Udaipaur where artisans, craftsmen hailing from remote areas stay and create artistic items has been a great success. The State Government has allotted 100 acres of land to it for building a complex of huts and ampitheatre and more States are asking for establishment ofsuchShilpagrams. It is also proposed to initiate a National Cultural Exchange Programme with ZCCs acting as a nodal point for research in art forms, documentation of folk and tribal arts, museums etc. and another scheme for documentation of vanishing folk and tribal art forms under ZCCs. With the Joint efforts of CCRT and NCERT, cultural component for students and youth would be strengthened through a new training programme for education administrators and inservice training of 15,000 teachers. It is proposed to set up children's cultural resource centres involving children on projects for cultural conservation and preservation. The centres would be linked up with DIETs for pre-service training of teachers. About 10 workshops of ten-days duration, each training 100 teachers and 1,000 students are envisaged. It is intended to prepare 200 cultural resource persons for dissemination purpose. Other new schemes include: dissemination of cultural education through illustrated material for school children, Bal Bharat Darshan and education for the physically handicapped and economically deprived students. The Programme Evaluation Organisation (PEO) has been asked to evaluate the scheme of Financial Assistance to Dance, Drama and Theatre Ensembles under which grants are given to well-established institutions to meet the expenditure towards salaries for "gurus' and artists, production grants etc. Further expansion would depend on results of evaluation.

To expose children and youth to the finest forms of creative expression multi-purpose cultural complex including those for children has been conceived as a joint venture of Centre and States. A cultural complex of international standard is proposed to he established in New Delhi through Sangeet Natak Academy to be financed partly from government resources and partly through non-budgetery sources.

11.13.3 The Central Institute ofBuddhist Studies, Leh proposes to compile an encyclopaedia of Himalayan culture and set up a printing press. The Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies, Varanasi proposes to develop its library and strengthen its faculty.


11.13.4 The IGNCA has done significant work so far and has successfully networked traditional centres of classical learning and scientific institutions. When fully developed, the entire rich heritage of ancient Indian manuscripts is expected to be available at one place for consultation and reference by academics, scholars, students and art critics. The proposed major programmes for the Eighth Plan are: acquisition of reprographic copies of manuscripts from Indian and foreign repositories; setting up of a National Facility for Interactive Multi-Media Documentation of Cultural Resources; collection, cataloguing, classification and display of personal collections of artists/scholars; expansion of the cultural archives and their preservation in hi-tech formats; studies of South-East Asian countries, Indo-Mexican and Indo-Afri-can studies and multi-volume Encyclopaedia of Arts. The requirements of IGNCA, both in respect of building project and in respect of its multifaceted academic progrmmes would be adequately provided for.

Financial Allocations

11.13.5 The Seventh Plan expendiure for Art and Culture was Rs. 450.89 crore, of which Rs. 268.73 crore was in the Central Sector and Rs. 182.16 crore in the State Sector. In the context of the strategy and thrust areas relating to our cultural heritage and need for promoting tribal and folk art and also likely formulation of National Cultural Policy, appropriate oulays for the Eighth Plan have been provided vide Annex-ure 11.7.



11.14.1The role and contribution of youth are of vital importance in all countries. In a country like India where population is growing rapidly and the proportion of the young in the overall social and demographic profile is continuously increasing, the role of youth becomes all the more significant. In 1981, the population of the youth (15-35 years of age-group) was estimated to be 219 million, i.e. 32 per cent of the total population. The corresponding figure in 1991 is estimated as 270 millions. Youth constitute the most creative segment of our society. Investment in the development of youth is an investment in human capital. It is, therefore,

imperative to provide increasing opportunities lo youth to develop their functional capabilities covering a variety of actions for development, training and utilisation of youth potential, making them economically productive and socially purposeful. Though a number of youth welfare schemes have been conceived at the higher level, there is a need to have a participative and decentralised framework tor the youth in the nation-building enterprise. This should cover their participation in literacy, family welfare and asset-creating activities.

11.14.2 Sports is a manifestation of the competitive nature of the play element in human life whose promotion has cohesive impact on health, productivity and social harmony. It is an activity in which persons of all ages can engage hut the peak period in the sports also occurs in the young age with a gradual decline thereafter. The two activities in Youth Affairs and Sports sector, therefore, reflect the holistic nature of this area of human endeavour and are logically dealt with jointly.


Plan Performance Review (1985-92)

11.15.1 In the Seventh Plan, youth development was given a thrust as reflected in the increased outlay of Rs. 98.90 crores for the youth programmes compared to Rs.12.54 crores in the Sixth Plan. In the light of the guidelines of the NPE, the Government also evolved a National Youth Policy (NYP) towards the end of 1988 which, inter-alia, siRphasisedJheJNIow.ing:

(1) Special efforts to foster and develop contact between youth from different parts of the country; (2) Meaningful programmes of mass education, formal and non-formal; (3) Training programmes for skill development of youth for self-employment; and (4) Opportunities for youth leadership training.

11.15.2 The main schemes for student youth relate to Bharat Scouts and Guides, National Service Scheme (NSS) and National Service Volunteers Scheme (NSVS) in addition to National Cadet Corps (NCC) which is a scheme implemented by Defence Ministry with the support of State Governments. At the end of the'Seventh Plan, the enrolment in these activities was: NSS - 10 lakhs; NCC - 11 lakhs; Scouts and Guides - 22 lakhs; and NSVS 3,000. This coverage is extremely inadequate in the context of overall strength of 11 crores school students and 42 lakhs college students.

11.15.3 The main scheme for non-student youth launched in 1972 is Nehru Yuva Kendra (NYK). In 1986-87, NYK Sangathan, an autonomous organisation, was set up with a view to providing a new thrust to the programme and to taking up innovative schemes. The number of NYKs increased from 247 to 398 and of youth clubs from 25,000 to 50,000 with substantial involvement in adult education. The results of evaluation by the Programme Evaluation Organisation (PEO) of Planning Commission in 1990 are generally positive, though some weaknesses by way of disparities in structure and service conditions of the youth coordinators, in the monitoring of the programmes, lack of proper linkage with other development activities at the operational level etc. were also noted. The Youth Clubs were found to be useful in creating awareness among the people about development programmes, in creating assets in the villages and in developing organisational skills of the non-student youth in the villages in respect of sports and cultural activities.

11.15.4 During the Seventh Plan, 1,600 proposals were approved, involving financial assistance to institutions/groups, individuals and voluntary organisations for mountaineering and allied activities as also for training of young people to undertake such activities. The scheme of youth ^^els wac trs".sf£rred from the Department of Tourism to the Department of Youth Affairs and Sports in 1985. Thirty-three youth hostels have so far been commissioned and work on 25 hostels is in progress. Steps were taken to intensify the National Integration Programmes, particularly in the north-east and border areas. New schemes pertaining to training of youth, exhibtions for youth and youth clubs and National Youth Awards were introduced.

Eighth Plan Strategy and Thrust

11.16.1 Considering the fact that youth comprise 32 per cent of the population, of whom about 50 per cent are illiterate and that student youth comprise only 10 per cent of the population, it is clear that the programmes for the youth have to be directed towards maximisation of the participation of non-student youth and since a majority of them are illiterate and a very large number unemployed, the programme would have to concentrate on two aspects: (1) human resource development activities geared to achieve the goals of "Education For All" and "Health For All" involving modules in health education, population education and functional literacy and (2) training for skill formation among the non-student youth for enabling them to participate in meaningful and remunerative work. The main schemes in this regard are NYKs in rural areas and Sharmik Vidyapeeths (SVPs) in urban areas.

11.16.2 The coverage of existing schemes for student youth, namely NSS, NCC and Scouts and Guides would have to be expanded in such a manner that almost all the High School-going and college/universtity-going youth are covered by one or the other activity by 1997. Keeping in view the recommendations of the NPE/PoA to make participation in sports/NSS/Social services an inseparable part of the learning process and also the recommendations of the C.D. De-shmukh Committee, the possibility of making NSS obligatory would be examined so that youth contribute massively and not merely marginally to the nation-building activities like eradication of illiteracy, 'promotion of health and family welfare education and afforestation programmes. The NSS can be made cost-effective by involving the community in a big way in the matter of hoarding and lodging of students when they go out for national service. The evaluation of NSS Programme has disclosed some weaknesses like low participation of female students because of paucity of female programme officers etc, which need to be corrected. State Governments should also be fully involved with the expansion of various youth programmes.

11.16.3 At present, the Youth Department deals with programmes for youth (15-35 years of age-group) and the Child Development Department primarily deals with developmental programmes for the children in the age-group-iipto to 6 years, leaving an age gap for which special programmes nedd to be mounted. Action should be initiated to deal with this age-group so that implementation of appropriate development programmes side by side with the normal educational activities is facilitated.

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