|8th Five Year Plan (Vol-2)||<<
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Agricultural and Allied Activities || Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation || Irrigation, Command Area Development and Flood Control || Environment and Forests || Industry and Minerals || Village and Small Industries and Food Processing Industries || Labour and Labour Welfare || Energy || Transport || Communication, Information and Broadcasting || Education, Culture and Sports || Health and Family Welfare || Urban Development || Housing, Water Supply and Sanitation || Social Welfare || Welfare and Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes || Special Area Development Programmes || Science and Technology || Plan Implementation and Evaluation
EDUCATION, CULTURE AND SPORTS
Eighth Plan Programmes
11.17.1 Within the framework outlined above and in the background of NYP 1988, various youth development programmes would be strengthened and expanded.
11.17.2 The aim during the Eighth Plan will be to ensure that the activities of the NYK are conducted in a cost- effective manner with emphasis on vocational training and employment promotion, Family Planning and survival values, eradication of illiteracy and provision of drinking water facilities. Pollution control, promotion of national integration and active involvement of youth clubs to fight social problems like corruption, dowry, drug addiction etc. are other thrust areas. Appropriate training modules would be developed particularly in the areas of health education and population education, which have been neglected so far. Efforts would also be made to develop functional linkages with other departments engaged in similar activities as recommended in the PEO report. The NYKs would function as the nucleus of rural youth activities, as a positive catalytic agent and as a multiplier in the development programmes of rural areas, namely TRYSEM, Community Polytechnics, Krishi Vigyan Kendras, entrepre-neurship development programmes etc. The assistance of IGNOU and of the State-level open universities as well as the Open Schools would be taken to implement massive training programmes for the rural youth. Special attention would be paid to ensure that women participate fully in all these training and literacy progrmmes and that women's participation is not confined to the traditional skills only but are exposed to all the modern occupations and vocations in common with men. An appropriate Management Information System (MIS) model for concurrent evaluation andmonitoringofNYKwould be set up. The NYK organisation would also be made self-supporting tothe extent possible.
11.17.3 A new scheme called Youth Development Centre (YDC) envisages setting up of an intermediate tier between youth clubs at village level and NYK at the district level. It would provide opportunities for full participation of rural youth in developmental and recreational activities. There would be 18,000 YDCs at the rate of one centre for a group of ten villages with facilities for information, sports, training and youth programmes for mental and physical development and promotion of entrepreneural capabilities of rural youth. The Village Panchayat is expected to make contribution by way of donation of land for the Centres, provision of voluntary labour and supply of material.
11.17.4 Youth comprises the larger proportion of the urban migrant labour lacking in basic education and literacy skills. Shramik Vidyap-eeths which impart a variety of educational and vocational skills to urban migrant labourers would be expanded substantially to tackle this problem.
11.17.5 In view of the rising cost of maintenance, the funding of activities under NSS has recently been increased from Rs. 80 to Rs. 120 per participant per year for normal activities and Rs. 150 to Rs. 200 per participant per year for special camping activities. This increase in per capita cost should be balanced by an increase in the number of days spent by students in national service. The rates of Centre-State share of expenditure are proposed to be changed from 7:5 to 3:2. The growth of volunteers enrolment would be about 10 per cent per annum during the Eighth Plan so that at the end of the Plan period, the volunteer strength will reach 15 lakhs. It is proposed to increase the coverage under Scouts and Guides and to set up regional centres for effective implementation and supervision of the programmes. The NCC functioning under the Ministry of Defence is not subject to the planning discipline and its evaluation is necessary. There are disparities in per capita expenses as between NCC and NSS which may be looked into. The NSVS which has very laudable aims has a very small coverage. It should be properly evaluated before expansion.
11.17.6 Adequate infrastructural and resource support would be provided for popularising adventure sports at low cost at the grassroot level. More than 2.50 lakh youth would he involved in various adventure activities. This facility would be expanded for children in the age-group of 8-14 years also. It is planned to include disaster management under adventure and introduce obstacle courses in schools. There is a proposal for a national institute for adventure which would be considered after reviewing the existing arrangements. In order to promote national integration through inter-State exchange of youth in work situations, National Integration Camps would be conducted annually in each of the States with 500 participants from all over the country who would work along with 500 participants drawn from the State. The Camp would facilitate youth to travel and work in areas other than their own, marked by cultural differences and also create assets in the process. The four Information and Development Resource Agencies (IDARAs) for youth training activities at Narendrapur, Lucknow, Gandhinagar and Nagpur would continue. The proposal for setting up a National Institute of Youth Development for youth training, research and development would be considered in the context of gaps in existing training arrangements.
SPORTS INCLUDING PHYSICAL EDUCATION
Plan Performance Review (1985-92)
11.18.1 The successful organisation of the 9th Asian Games, in 1982 gave a new impetus to sports and games and the implementation of the National Sports Policy 1984 was taken up which inter alia emphasised importance of health and physical fitness through physical eduction, provision of the necessary sports facilities and infrastructure on a large-scale, necessity of raising national standards in sports and games and the need for spoting and nurturing sports talent at a young age and to provide coaching, training and nutrition required for the development of the talented sportspersons. The Sports Authority of India (SAI) was set up in March, 1984 for promoting sports and games and for managing infrastructural and other facilities created for the 9th Asiad. With the amalgamation of the Society for National Institute of Physical Education and Sports (SNIPES) with SAI in May, 1987, the SAI has become the premier institution in the country not only for the broadbasing of sports but also for identifying talent and training sports persons to achieve excellence in international events.
11.18.2 In 1987, the Department undertook a thorough review of all the schemes of the Government as well as of SAI designed to promote sports and games including physical education. The various recommendations of the Committee are being implemented. The SAI implemented the following schemes:
(1) Under the National Physical Fitness Scheme, the national-level 'Bhartiyam' display consisting of 50,000 children was staged on the 14th November, 1989 at Nehru Stadium, New Delhi.
(2) The Sports Project Development Areas (SPDA) Scheme was introduced in 1988-89 to provide facilities for sports infrastructure and for training, coaching and conducting competitions in each project, covering an area of 80-100 development blocks. So far, 21 SPDAs as against 78 projected have been sanctioned infrastructural assistance. Of these, 14 and another 9 Centres have become functional generally on the basis of existing infrastructure.
(3) Under the National Coaching Scheme, 8,000 coaches have been trained through different centres of Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports, Patiala. More than 1,600 of the above coaches have already been deployed by NIS/SAI to various State Sports Councils, University Field Stations and Nehru Yuva Kendras under the Rajkumari Amrit Kaur Sports Coaching Scheme.
(4) Under the Special Area Games (SAG) Scheme, sports talent from tribal, costal, hilly and other far-flung areas of the country is scouted, located and trained in modern competitive sports at special centres where all facilities of sports infrastructure, coaching, training, equipments and educational and vocational requirements are provided. The Archery and Water Sports Centres established under the scheme have shown good results.
(5) A sum of Rs. 9.26 crores was spent as incentive for promotion of sports activities in schools during the Seventh Plan.
11.18.3 The Department continued to implement the scheme of National Sports Orgnisation (NSO) under which universities/colleges were assisted through UGC for creation of sports infrastrucure. Under the scheme of sports clubs, financial assistance was provided to voluntary sports clubs to promote sports activities at the grassroot level. Under the scheme of Promotion of Sports among Women, scholarships are provided to meritorious sportwomen. Boarding and lodging expenses were provided to women in physical education and sports academic centres for doing diploma, degree and PG courses. ,
11.18.4 In the field of physical education, the infrastructure consists of Rani Laxmibai National Physical Education Institute, Gwalior, Regional Centre at Trivandrum under Central Government and about 200 colleges of physical education of all kinds in various States. Physical Education as an activity was transferred to the Department of Youth Affairs and Sports in 1988-89.
Eighth Plan Strategy and Thrust
11.19.1 Although on the eve of 1990 Asiad, an 'operation excellence' was launched specially to prepare Indian sportsmen for successful participation in that prestigious event as well as subsequent events, India's actual performance belied these hopes and exposed the weak links of the Indian sports sector. The other countries improved their medal tally position. It is noted that comparable countries in the neighbourhood have reached the top after concerted efforts for 15 years or so. It is, therefore, necessary that a long-term Plan is drawn up for effective Indian participation in various international events, keeping in view the pitfalls of earlier experiments. The procedures relating to identification of disciplines, selection and preparation of Indian sportspersons/sports- teams, identification of national coaches, selection of sportspersons for inclusion in the coaching camps, venues of the coaching camps, designing of a battery of physical fitness/medical/skill tests during coaching camps and the need for additional facilities for substantive coaching camps would all be taken into account for preparing an immediately implementable plan for building up and enhancing the medal-winning capabilities of Indian sportspersons. Not only the concerned federations and the State Governments but the private and public sector orgnisations would have to be fully involved with the formulation and implementation of the Plan. However, such a short-term Plan must have a long-term perspective of broadbasing the sports with a view to achieving physical fitness for all and excellence in sports through talent spotting and nurturing. The elements of this long-term Plan are mentioned below:
(1) Creation of desired sport climate in the country and consciousness in every citizen to be physically fit and to participate in games and sports. This requires creation of infrastructure in a planned manner and more efficient and fuller use of available sports infrastructure and coaching facilities with promotion of activities like 'Bharatiyam':
(2) Erection of pyramidal structure beginning with primary and secondary schools and culminating at college level with flexibility of networking between different levels. For these resource potentials to develop, adequate number of physical education teachers are required and in addition to the play fields at the school stage and necessary 'encouraging' environment for the willing students to make further progress, there is a need to afford adequate support to the Special Area Games (SAG) and the National Sports Talent Centre (NSTC) schemes, which provide opportunities to potential sportspersons in tribal, remote and rural areas for getting them trained in selected disciplines. A related aspect is the need to have separate infrastructure of sports institutions. A beginning has been made in this regard by developing sports infrastructure in the regional and other centres of SAI.
(3) The large number of coaches who have been trained under the National Coaching Scheme need to be retrained in modern professional and scientific methods. In view of the finding ofPEO evaluation study of the scheme in Rajasthan and U.P. that the overall achievement of trained coaches and supervisors was in the region of 69.2 per cent and 65.5 per cent respectively, action to improve these levels of achievement need to be taken especially because SAI is not likely to be able to assign coaches to State Sports Councils at its own cost.
(4) To fill the talent gap in the age-group of 17-23 years, a new look needs to be given to the development of sports and games in colleges and universities. Sponsorship and prize money tournaments for sub-junior/junior age-group upwards will have to be arranged with the active cooperation of industrial undertakings interested in the development of sports having ultimate link with employment according to qualifications and performance level in sports.
(5) Adoption of a scientific approach towards development of sports potential requires promotion of sports medicine and application of its techniques in selection and fostering of talents. For high performance, there is a need to examine and establish the correlation of the cardfnal factors, i.e. anatomical/physiological factors, gender-related factors, nutritional inputs, psychological and other factors with the performance at all levels (initial and peak). The SAI should undertake a research study in the priority area by involving competent institutions, bio-medical scientists, nutritionists, specialists in physical and sports medicine and sportsmen.
(6) States are vitally concerned in development of sports. State Governments need to be encouraged to prepare comprehensive plans for the development of sports with adequate resources built up within the Eighth Plan so that the national objectives of building up of medal-winning capabilities on the broad foundation of "Sports For All" covering promotion of community sports in various sections of the population can be achieved.
(7) As per the International Olympic Charter, sports should be independent of Government control. This pre-supposes the conduct of affairs in the sport areas by the connected non-official organisations in a highly professional manner. It is necessary to have a constructive dialogue with the concerned non-official organisations in the interest of enhancing and realising winning potential and projecting the merit of India's sportspersons on the international scene and also to ensure that Sports Federations eventually become self-supporting.
(8) Besides setting up new projects, it is equally important to complete the projects earlier started and to utilise playing and coaching facilities already created to the optimum extent.
11.19.2 It may also be noted that the Sports Policy 1984 is being reviewed by the Department of Sports and Youth Affairs.
Eighth Plan Programmes
11.20.1 Most of the schemes formulated are designed for broadbasing of sports or for achieving excellence in sports or for strengthening the weak links. A much larger number -around 25,000 representing ten-fold increase -of talented sports children would be supported for round-the-year house training/coaching with optimal nutrition inputs for promotion of excellence in about 15 disciplines of sports. Seventeen State Sports Training Complexes, 55 Sports Project Development Area Complexes, 50 District Sports Complexes, 1,000 playgrounds and sports facilities for 42,000 rural schools will be built up. A scheme for rewards and incentives, earlier absent in the universities and colleges, is being introduced. Infrastructure will be created in 20 universities and colleges having a history of tradition of excellence in games and sports. In each university and college only two or three disciplines would be nurtured. SAI has since taken over the work of AIU in the matter of holding of coaching camps.
11.20.2 Priority would be given to only 15 out of 50 sports disciplines for support to Federations with a view to improving the medal-winning potential of Indian athletes in international competitions. Fifty per cent of expenditure could be borne by public and private sector corporations. Such support is required in other components also, viz. internatinal sports events and national championship with the objective of making the sports federations self- supporting.
11.20.3 The range and sweep of rural sports programme would be amplified by promoting sports activities throughout the year through voluntary sports clubs in each community development block working under the supervision and guidance of Nehru Yuvak Kendra. About 5,000 blocks would be covered with each block being given one-time fixed financial support and annual recurring expenditure, the clubs being expected to generate resources to the maximum extent possible.
11.20.4 A new scheme called 'Rajiv Khel Yo-jana' meant exclusively for the benefit of slum-dwellers in metropolitan towns would he started, beginning with the slums of Bombay, Madras, Delhi and Bangalore through voluntary agencies under the guidance of SAI.
11.20.5 The Seventh Plan expenditure for the Sports and Youth Affairs was Rs. 484.51 crore, of which Rs. 248.67 crore was in Central Sector and Rs. 235.84 crore in State Sector. The approved outlays for the Eighth Plan within the framework of priorities and thrust areas indicated in this sector are shown in Annexure 11.7
Institutions = Numbers; Enrolment = Thousands
Source: Selected Educational Statistics, 1984-85 and 1989-90, Deptt. of Education, Ministry of HRD Govt. of India
Of Additional Enrolment At Elementary Stage (classes I-viii)
Including Daman and Diu *
And Expenditure On Education Seventh Plan And Annual Plans:
(Rs. in crores)
and Expenditure on Education - Seventh Plan and Annual Plans:
and Expenditure on Education Seventh Plan and Annual Plans:
(Figures in 000's)
Source: Plan document ofStates/UT's amd summary records of working groups as Education.
(Rs. in crores)
Coverage Of World Bank Assisted Projects For
(Rs. in Crores)
1. Does not include 10 new Women's Wings to be converted Polytechnics
in both phases.
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