|8th Five Year Plan (Vol-2)||<< Back to Index|
Agricultural and Allied Activities || Rural Development and Poverty Alleviation || Irrigation, Command Area Development and Flood Control || Environment and Forests || Industry and Minerals || Village and Small Industries and Food Processing Industries || Labour and Labour Welfare || Energy || Transport || Communication, Information and Broadcasting || Education, Culture and Sports || Health and Family Welfare || Urban Development || Housing, Water Supply and Sanitation || Social Welfare || Welfare and Development of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes || Special Area Development Programmes || Science and Technology || Plan Implementation and Evaluation
SPECIAL AREA DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
I. Hill Areas Development Programme (HADP):
A. Problems of Hill Areas:
17.1.1 The crucial environmental problems of the hills are deforestation and soil erosion,both leading to the drying up of water sources, flash floods and decline in the yield of food and cash crops, fodder, fuel and other minor forest produce. Poverty in the hills is directly related to shortages of materials for basic subsistence, specially where, under the traditional land and water management systems, the capacity of land to support the population has already been exceeded.
17.1.2 In many hill areas, intensive human and livestock pressures along with indiscriminate felling of trees for commercial purposes have already led to loss of soil and rapid depletion and destruction of forest cover. Besides, to this, water retention capacity and productivity of land have been adversely affected. These factors have impaired the ecology significantly and also resulted in deterioration in the economic condition for the hill people. Traditional agricultural practices, especially shifting cultivation, have also contributed to destruction of forests and soil erosion. Seemingly harmless activity as prolonged grazing by livestock, especially goats and sheep, have further exposed many hill areas to serious ecological degradation. Development activities like construction of buildings, roads, dams, large and medium industries and mining etc., have aggravated environmental problems. Consequently, perennial sources of water springs and small streams have dried up in many areas. The major challenge, therefore, is to devise suitable location-specific solutions, so as to reverse the process and ensure sustain-able development of the growing population and ecology of the hill areas.
B. Classification of Hill Areas
17.2.1 The responsibility for balanced social and economic development of the hill areas rests primarily with the concerned State Governments.
17.2.2 The hill areas covered under the HADP were the areas identified in 1965 by a Committee of the National Development Council (NDC) and those recommended by the High Level Committee for Western Ghats in 1972. The HADP would continue to be implemented during the Eighth Plan, only in those areas where it is already under operation.
17.2.3 The hill areas of the country fall broadly into the following two categories :
(i) Areas which are co-extensive with the boun-dries of the State or Union Territory, i.e., Hill States/Union Territories, namely, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
(ii) Areas which form part of a State, which are termed as N Designated Hill Areas', namely :
17.2.4 The area and population of the Hill States and the Designated Hill Areas are detailed in T^ble 17.1.
C. Pattern of Funding
17.3.1 The Hill States mentioned in para 17.2.3 (i) above are called 'Special Category States'. The amount required for giving Central assistance for their development plans is pre- empted from the divisible pool before making allocations from it to the other States categorised as 'Non-Special Category States'.
17.3.2 The Special Central Assistance (SCA) provided for the HADP is additive to normal State Plan funds. This SCA is not meant to be utilised for normal State Plan activities. The schemes under the HADP is to be properly dovetailed and integrated with the State Plan schemes. The schemes undertaken under both these programmes also need to be conceived of and designed to achieve the specific objectives of these programmes and need not be merely conventional State Plan schemes.
D. Hill Areas DevelopmentProgramme (HADP) - Objectives, Approaches and Strategies
17.4.1 The programme has been in operation since the inception of the Fifth Five Year Plan in the Designated Hill Areas.
17.4.2 The basic objective of the Hill Areas Development Programme has been socio-economic development of the hills and the people living there in harmony with ecological development, The programmes implemented under the HADP have, therefore, aimed at promoting the basic life support systems with sustainable use of the natural resources of the area covered by the programme.
17.4.3 The approach and the strategy of the HADP has evolved over time. The programmes implemented during the Fifth Plan period were mainly beneficiary oriented. While the emphasis shifted to eco-development in the Sixth Plan, the general tenor of the HADP remained substantially the same as that of the normal State Plan following the same sectoral approach. The Seventh Plan laid particular emphasis on the development of ecology and environment as summed up in three phrases, namely, eco-resto-ration, eco-preservation and eco- development. It aimed at evolving plans and programmes to take care of socio-economic growth, development of infrastructure and promotion of ecology of the areas covered by the HADP.
17.4.4 During the last three Five Year Plans, substantial effort and resources were channelised for the development of infrastructure. However, the corresponding growth in the productive sectors of most of the hill economies has not kept pace with the extent of efforts and resources channelised. During the Eighth Plan, attention will have to be focussed on this, especially, in modernising the agricultural practices and small scale industries at household, cottage and village levels. To achieve this, involvement of the people, would be of paramount importance. Actual basic needs of the people have to be met through improved management of their land and water resources.
17.4.5 The following will be the approach and strategy in respect of hill areas development planning:
i) Intensive efforts would be necessary at the implementation level to halt the process of degradation of the hills and improve productivity of land.
ii) Innovative approaches to family planning and welfare to contain the population growth to sustainable levels have to be adopted.
iii) Financial and physical monitoring of the HADP by the State Governments would help improve implementation of various programmes.
iv) Afforestation programme may be popularised through village Panchayats or village authorities, schools and other local organisations, groups and clubs. Private nurseries, especially, of multi-purpose trees which yield benefits like fodder leaves, edible fruits or leaves or flowers, seeds, leaves of commercial value can be encouraged.
v) Application of scientific inputs to agriculture and allied sectors, including identification of crops suitable for the agro-climatic zones, multi-purpose species of trees and bushes to meet requirements of the people from a well-developed small land area are of special importance. This approach is expected to spare considerable areas for permanent greening programmes, like social forestry or horticultural and serve the long-term objectives of enhancing production on sustainable basis.
vi) Appropriate technologies to bring about localised self-sufficiency and generate alternative means of livelihood, as opposed to heavy dependence on forests, and livestock rearing, can be encouraged.
vii) Use of appropriate technologies to upgrade the traditional productive systems like agricultural operations, livestock rearing, arts and crafts, household and cottage industries, etc., and to reduce drudgery of women in fetching water, fuel-wood, fodder and other demanding daily domestic chores needs to be encouraged on priority. The technologies have to be need-based, more productive, efficient, low-cost, and ecologically sustainable.
viii) Extension services should enlighten and educate people on how to enhance productivity of both cultivated and community land on a sustainable basis in the context of increasing human and livestock pressures.
ix) Consolidation of small and scattered land holdings would help in improving water and land management and ultimately, productivity of the limited land assets of the hills.
x) In many hill areas, land assets are held as common or community property. In such areas, people do not make permanent investments and several other problems also originate from this. To overcome these, local communities have to evolve suitable models of land management that would invite permanent investment and ensure both optimal returns and ecological safety and development.
xi) The State Governments may take a fresh look at their Plan and non-Plan Schemes, forest policies, the land tenure systems,land and water use policies and realign them to eradicate practices destructive to ecology and environment.
xii) In order to reduce pressure on land, quality of livestock, including goats, sheep, pigs and poultry birds has to be improved and their numbers reduced. There is an urgent need for relating livestock population to the bearing capacity of available land. Scrub animals could be systematically culled out. The livestock and cattle improvement programmes need to be integrated with fodder and cattle-feed development, stall feeding and scientific grazing. The land and livestock management systems have to improve rapidly.
xiii) The productivity of pastures and grazing areas needs to be restored and enhanced. The effort should be to meet the requirements of food, fuel-wood, timber and fodder through scientific utilisation of scarce hill resources on sustainable basis from the least land area.
xiv) Development of non-conventional energy and use of non- wood based sources of energy could be encouraged.
xv) Development of watersheds that can meet water requirement of the people and conserve water and soil resources of the area can be taken up for integrated development. For this, a multi-disciplinary approach is considered most appropriate for creating conditions conducive to development of natural and human resources.
xvi) Food security has to be ensured on top most priority. Development of horticulture, sericulture and plantation, especially cash crops having low volume, light weight, high value and long shelf-life, could play an important role in generating employment opportunities, higher incomes and ecologically sound development in hilly areas.
xvii) Area specific marketing infrastructtire, especially for perishable produce and its processing, storage and packaging may be set up where such surpluses are imminent or evident.
xviii)At the household level, kitchen gardens can be popularised to supplement and enrich the diet of hill people.
xix) Wherever transport linkages have been established and local cultivation of food-grains is not advantageous, strong Public Distribution System could be extended, provided other adequate income generating avenues exist.
xx) To reduce the use of wood for packaging of horticultural produce, suitable non-wood based packaging materials such as plastics could be increasingly used on a viable basis.
xxi) Incentives that would encourage formation of large viable hill villages might be built into the development effort, so that the overhead input costs to reach amenities and services to them, could be reduced.
xxii) Many hill areas seem to be especially suited to industries that require pollution-free atmosphere, cool climate and precision skills like electronics, watch-making, optical glasses, sericulture, etc. A number of cottage industries like carpet weaving, handlooffis, handicrafts and other village and household based small-scale industries can be encouraged. Due to higher transportation costs in these areas, industries which reduce weight and volume, but add value and increase shelf-life to the locally available raw materials will be advantageous. Large and medium industries may not generally be considered suitable except under favourable circumstances.
xxiii) Rubber plantations have proved successful in certain areas. Wherever degraded tree-free land could become available and where rubber plantations could thrive, these could be encouraged.
xxiv) Development of sericulture has good potential in hiU areas. A systematic programme of planting feedstock trees for silkworms on all spare patches of land can be taken up. Development of sericulture can provide employment to educated and skilled workers and generate value-adding activities and bring in foreign exchange. However, the programme will call for right quality of graine, prompt payment in cash for the cocoons and primary processing activities at local levels.
xxv) Tourism can be organised as an industry, with due care taken to avoid exploitative use of scarce local resources, especially, water and fuel-wood.
xxvi) Location specific suitable code of conduct for tourists may be evolved so as to maintain the surroundings clean and disease free, protect local ecology and respect local traditions, culture and heritage.
xxvii)Special care needs to be taken to ensure that hill roads are constructed as per traffic needs, scientific design and specifications suited to hill areas, so that the loose soil is contained, proper drainage system is developed and chances of land slides minimised. In such hill areas where the population density is low and the villages are small and scattered over long distances, porter or pony tracks can be built and properly maintained. Road construction should be completed in all respects without delays.
xxviii)Mining can be carried out but with adequate safeguards in favour of ecology during and after the mining operations.
xxix) Resources should not be thinly spread on a large number of projects and schemes. The priority for such ongoing and spillover schemes, projects and programmes which do not benefit people in improving their quality of life or are destructive to ecology, can be reduced down or terminated.
xxx) Shifting cultivation, called 'jhum'is i mainly practised in nine States of country, ie., seven States of the North Eastern Region,Andhra Pradesh and Orissa. The continuation of \jhum' cultivation reflects the inadequate attention paid to the development of agriculture. Improvement in agricultural practices, development of land for permanent cultivation, increase in "jhum 'land productivity and lengthening of 'jhum ' cycle, will help in blunting the destructive edge of the practice. In comparatively isolated areas, permanent cultivation on scientific lines for localised self-sufficiency in food seems to be a strong viable solution to the problem. Simultaneously, development of location specific alternative income generating occupations can continue.
xxxi) Media support for transfer of suitable modern agriculture technology and its extension need to be given. A separate special programme at about 1800 or 1900 hours needs to be telecast and broadcast for the hill people who usually go to sleep early.
xxxii)Some of the voluntary organisations doing commendable work in the hills can be encouraged, especially, those engaged in improving the ecological system besides economic and social conditions of the people.
xxxiii)People have to be made aware of the far reaching implications of environmental degradation and their active participation has to be sought for reconstruction of ecology. Environmental aspects can be suitably woven into the curriculum of primary and high school classes.
xxxiv)Regeneration and development of the hill environment cannot be achieved without willing and active cooperation of the people. It will be forthcoming, only if, the benefits from improved land, water and forests resources reach directly and equita-biy to the people themselves.
xxxv) The hill areas
prone to intense tectonic and seismic activities, need to be identified;activities
xxxvi)Large projects etc. which might endanger the ecological balance and displace large number of people, should be very carefully considered before investment decisions are taken. Families whose agricultural land is acquired should be settled with productive assets.
xxxvii)In many hill areas men folk have migrated to towns and plains in search of employment opportunities. In such areas, women are managing land and other economic assets. The approach and policies should keep this in view, especially for lightening their burdens of daily chores like collection of fuel-wood, water, and tending to livestock and other domesticated animals and birds. It will be of much advantage if women extension workers are appointed in such villages.
E. Allocation of Special Central Assistance
17.5.1 In the Seventh Plan, out of" the agreed outlay of special central financial assistance for HADP, 86.61% w<;ni for the Designated Hill Districts and 13.39% for the Western Ghats Talukas. However, during 1989-90, 1990-91 and 1991-92, additional funds to the tune of Rs.5.00crores, Rs.l .67 crores, Rs.3.00crores, respectively were allocated in favour ofDarjee-ling.
17.5.2 The funds in sight for HADP for the Eighth Plan are Rs.1450 crores.Out of this Rs.4.67 crores per annum as additional for Darjeeling are set apart and ihe balance amount will be distributed in the ratio of 86.61 : 13.39 between Designated hill Districts and Designated Talukas of Western Ghats respectively.
17.5.3 As against Rs.870 of agreed outlay for the Seventh Plan, the allocation on year-to-year basis aggregated to Rs. 1067.80 crores. For the Annual Plans 1990-91,1991-92 and 1992-93, the allocations were Rs.287.00 crores,Rs.290.00 crores and Rs.290.00 crores respectively.
17.5.4 In the light of the existing financial constraints, the outlay for the Eighth Plan will be Rs.1450 crores. The details .ire as follows:
Allocation of Special Central Assistance for the Designated Hill Areas during the Seventh and Eighth Five Year Plans.
+ Excludes Rs.23.35 crores provided as additional SCA for Darjeeling hill areas of West Bengal.
F .Western Ghats Development Programme (WGDP)
17.6.1 The Western Ghats hill ranges run to a length of about 1600 kms, more or less parallel to the west coast of Maharashtra starting from the mouth of river Tapti in Dhule district of Maharashtra and ending at Kanyakumari, the southern-most tip of India in Tamil Nadu. The region covers an area of 1.60 lakh sq.kms. supporting a population of 38.85 million (1981 Census). For delineation of the area for coverage by the WGDP, the criteria of elevation (600 metres above MSL)' and contiguity with taluka' (a territorial administrative unit) have been adopted.
17.6.2 The region generally receives 2000 mm to 7000 mm. of rainfall. Most of the rivers in peninsular India have their origin in Western Ghats. The Godavari, the Krishna, the Kaveri, the Kali Nadi and the Periyar are of inter-State importance. These water resources have been harnessed for irrigation and power. Thirty per cent of the area of the "ghats' region is reported to be under forest. The region is also a treasure house of plant and animal life. The traditional horticulture crops in the region are arecanut in the hills, and cocoanut in the coast along with mango and jack fruit. Tea, coffee, rubber, cashew, tapioca and potato are the other important plantations/crops of the region.
17.6.3 The ecological and environmental problems of the area include increasing pressure of population on land and vegetation; submergence of forest areas under river valley projects, encroachment on forest lands; clear felling of forests for raising tea, coffee, rubber and other plantations; mining operations, soil erosion, land slides; shifting cultivation; and declining wildlife population.
17.6.4 A separate Western Ghats Development programme was launched in 1974-75 as a part of the programme for the development of hill areas.
17.6.5 During the Fifth Five Year Plan the WGDP laid emphasis on economic well-being of the population in hill areas and exploitation of the resources of the hilly region. The main programmes during the Fifth Five Year Plan consisted of activities in the areas of horticulture, plantation, afforestation, minor irrigation, animal husbandry and tourism.
17.6.6 The Sixth Plan stressed the need for a balance in emphasis between beneficiary oriented and infrastructural development schemes, keeping in view the vital importance of ecological restoration and conservation. During the Sixth Plan the Watersheds Development Programme was taken up on a pilot basis.
17.6.7 Apart from the shift in the emphasis from beneficiary oriented schemes to eco-con-servation and eco- development, a notable step initiated by the Planning Commission during the Sixth Plan was the involvement of universities and research institutions located in the Western Ghats region in the programme.
17.6.8 The following guiding principles were folowed for the WGDP during the Seventh Plan period:
17.6.9 The approach to the WGDP during the Eighth Plan would continue to be substantially the same as for the Seventh Plan. The general approach would be that of taking up integrated development programmes on compact watershed basis keeping in view the overriding priorities of eco- development and eco-restoration as well as the basic needs of the hill people like food, fodder, fuel and safe drinking water. Efforts would be made to adopt a sub-plan approach in the WGDP.
17.7.1 For the Hill areas covered by the HADP the sub-plan approach has been adopted since the beginning of the Fifth Five Year Plan, under which a separate Sub-Plan for the hill areas in the concerned State is prepared indicating the flow of funds from the State Plan, and the Special Central Assistance (SCA) is provided as an additive to accelerate the pace of their development. In the case of the WGDP, only the schematic approach is being followed, since the 'taluka' (which is the territorial unit of planning in the WGDP) is a unit of demarcation in respect of which the flow of funds from the State Plan are difficult to be quantified. Efforts are being made to follow the sub-plan approach in the WGDP also.
II. North Eastern Council (NEC).
17.8.1 The NEC was set up in August, 1972 under the North Eastern Council Act, 1971
with its Secretariat at Shillong (Meghalaya) as an advisory body and is empowered to discuss matters of common interest of two or more States and to advise the Central Government and the concerned State Governments in matters of common interest, inter-alia, in the fields of economic and social planning; inter-State transport and communication; power and flood control.
17.8.2 For securing balanced development, the NEC can formulate proposals of common interest for the States, coordinate regional plans, recommend priorities and location of projects which will serve common interest of more than one State of the Region. The NEC can recommend the manner in which the expenditure will be incurred and benefits apportioned.etc.
17.8.3 A number of projects requiring substantial funds are already in hand. Due to financial constraints, it may be possible to take up only new projects that have identifiable advantages to a number of States, i.e., having interstate ramifications and that too with the consent of the concerned States regarding implementation, cost of maintenance and benefit sharing.
17.8.4 During the earlier Plan, the NEC had taken up small schemes and projects that could have been taken up under the State Plans or by the concerned Central Ministries or Departments. Such schemes and projects could, perhaps, be considered for transfer to the concerned States or Central Ministries.
17.8.5 Funds are provided by the Government of India through the Ministry of Home Affairs which is the 'nodal' Ministry for the NEC. The NEC by itself is not an implementing agency. The Plan outlay and expenditure of NEC since 1973-74 are given in Table 17.3
17.8.6 The outlay for the Eighth Plan of NEC would be Rs.1160 crores as compared to the Seventh Plan agreed outlay of Rs.675.00 crores (including Rs.100.00 crores of L.I.C loans) and the yearly allocations aggregating to Rs.835.00 crores. The allocation for 1990-91, 1991-92 and 1992-93, were Rs.202.00 crores, Rs.230.00 crores, Rs.232.00 crores (including Rs.5.00 crores, Rs.20.00 crores, and Rs. 10.00 crores of loan ) respectively.
III. Boarder Area Development Programme (BADP)
17.9.1 A new programme for the development of border area was started under the Seventh Plan. It was funded entirely by the Central Government. Its objective was balanced development of the sensitive border areas in the Western Region through provision of infrastructure facilities and promotion of a sense of security among the local population. To start with, the programme covered the States of Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat. Subsequently, it was extended to Jammu and Kashmir. The outlay provided under the Seventh Plan was Rs.200 crores.
17.9.2 The actual execution of schemes under the Programme could begin only from 1986-87. Initially, it was to be administered by the Ministry of Home Affairs. Later, the principal thrust of the Programme was changed to development of human resources, particularly, education school, technical and vocational in the Community Development Blocks adjoining the border. In its final form, the Programme comprised four elements: issue of photo identity cards to the population in the target areas; education; irrigation and research studies on socio-economic development of these areas. The outlays in the Annual Plans of 1990-91 and 1991-92 were Rs.86 crores and Rs.85 crores respectively. The Programme will be continued in the Eighth Plan. However, its coverage will be extended to the Eastern Region and the scope reviewed so that problems occasioned by the existence of an international border are taken care of and not general development schemes which in the normal course are part of State Plans. The Eighth Plan contemplates an outlay of Rs.640 crores under this Programme.
IV. Desert Development Programme (DDP)
17.10.1 The Desert Development Programme was initiated in 1977-78 on the recommendation of the National Commission on Agriculture. It covers both the hot desert regions of Gujarat, Rajasthan and Haryana as well the as cold desert areas in Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. It is operative in 131 blocks of 21 districts in 5 States, covering an area of about 3.62 lakh sq. kms. and a population of about 150 lakhs.
17.10.2 The objectives of the programme include controlling the process of desertification, mitigating the effects of drought in the areas, restoring the ecological balance in the affected areas and raising productivity of land, water livestock and human resources. At least 75 per cent of the allocations have been earmarked for activities which would contribute towards combating the process of desertification. The proportionate weights assigned to sectoral activities in this programme are as follows:
17.10.3 This programme is implemented with 100 per cent central assistance. The allocations are made at the rate of Rs.24 lakhs per 1000 sq. kms. with a ceiling ofRs.500 lakhs per district. However, for the cold desert areas a lumpsum provision is made, which is Rs.100 lakhs per district for Himachal Pradfsh and Rs.150 lakhs per district for .1 and K. The p'd gramme Evaluation Organisation of the Planning Commission has been entrusted wish th.' task of evaluating this programme in order to assess its impact on the control of desertification and on improvements in productivity and ", comes of life of the people living in these areas.
It excludes Assam , which is also a Special Category State.
-' In the cae of Western Ghats Region Taluka is the unit
of demarcation. The figure indicated in the brackets denote the number
ofTalukas in the District under the HADP in the Designated Talukas of
Western Ghats Areas.
Allocation of Special Central Assistance Under Hill Areas Development
* In addition Rs
5.00 Crores were allocated from HADP.
NEC - Outlay and Expenditure
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